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In addition to the socio-economic developments, the population is also seeking higher living standards. However, they have no spare time to care for their toys despite their work. This project aims to develop intelligent systems to monitor the aquaponic ecosystem and provide environmental and ecological protection for ornamental fish and hydroponic plants. Initially, a comprehensive description was provided of the importance and functions of the system, and then architecture, hardware components, and software development were included. The system includes three components, namely information gathering, mobile transmission, and intelligent interactive web applications. Cloud services use data controls of classic ASP with some editor extensions. In that case bi directional communication enables a model view controller on different platforms,

Periodically

The system must collect real-time data and send it to a cloud server. The collected data includes: (a) Temperature, (b) Humidity, (c) pH levels at different locations of the aquaponic ecosystem, and (d) dissolved oxygen in the water for fish habitats. The sensor nodes measure these parameters and pass them to gateway devices that then transfer them to servers via Net core Protocols such as Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), User Datagram Protocol (UDP), Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).

Mobile Application

A mobile application is used for monitoring and controlling the system remotely using smartphones or tablets. It allows users to control several actuators simultaneously and adjust pH level and temperature parameters inside greenhouses.

Intelligent Applications

The system will use intelligent web apps to monitor and control the aquaponic ecosystem. First, the mobile application will run these services through Intelligent Cloud-based Applications, where users can provide necessary input to determine the location of their home greenhouse. Then, the system uses forecasting models to predict the crop's status in advance by applying Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques such as machine learning, natural language processing (NLP), data mining, image recognition.

System components are not designed for specific sensor network infrastructures but are generic enough to be implemented using many networks. For this reason, OpenWrt has been selected because it is suitable for building WSNs that find wide usage in different sectors, including industrial automation systems.

Control System Monitoring

The intelligent controller controls the aquaponic system, such as feeding, lighting, and ventilation will run automatically. In addition, it will monitor the humidity level and adjust the fan speed accordingly so that the plants can breathe adequately. The controller also consists of a real-time clock that schedules on/off periods for different zones inside an area for light or ventilation according to the requirement set by the user.

Monitoring Function:

- Grow Light Control: This monitoring function is used to turn on-off grow lights as scheduled by the user at scheduled time intervals within a 24hr day cycle. It monitors its running status and records it into the local Syslog server for analysis. Requirement: Grow Light control must be ON after the scheduled time interval & OFF before the scheduled time interval

- Fan Control: This monitoring function is used to turn on-off ventilation fans as scheduled by the user at scheduled time intervals within a 24hr day cycle. It monitors its running status and records it into the local Syslog server for analysis. Requirement: Fan control must be ON after the scheduled time interval & OFF before the scheduled time interval

- Temperature Monitor: This monitoring function measures the temperature in the aquaponic system every hour. Users can access temperature values through a web pages portal or Android application. The controller will send an alert notification when the temperature limit is exceeded. Requirement: The temperature monitor must be ON all the time for cross platform net apps.

- Water Level Monitor: This monitoring function measures the water level every 6 hours in an aquaponic system. It detects high water levels & low water levels and sends an alert notification when the water is too high or too low. Requirement: The water level monitor must be ON all the time. Programming languages give you data access for visual basic and data driven web applications. An universal windows platform is a net platform with a visual studio and web API. Net applications require special net framework based on a net code. Mobile apps like microsoft products use visual studio IDE for dynamic websites and entity framework, which enables developers to use HTML markup for business logic.

- pH Level Monitor: This monitoring function measures pH in the aquaponic system every 20 minutes. Users can access pH values through a web portal or Android application. The controller will send an alert notification when the pH limit is exceeded. Requirement: PH monitor must be ON all the time

- PH Level Control: This control function uses a solenoid valve to add water to increase or decrease the pH of an aquaponic system according to the setpoint to keep the plant healthy. It monitors its running status and records it into the local Syslog server for analysis. Requirement: PH control must be ON when needed & OFF when not needed

- Water Temp Control: This control function uses a solenoid valve to add or remove water to increase or decrease the water temperature of an aquaponic system according to the setpoint to keep the plants healthy. It monitors its running status and records it into the local Syslog server for analysis. Requirement: Water temp control must be ON when needed & OFF when not needed

- Feeding Function: This monitoring function is used to measure ORP every hour in an aquaponic system. The controller will notify if ORP falls below the setpoint, killing fish and plants. Requirement: ORP monitor must be ON all the time

- Aeration: This monitoring function is used to measure ORP every hour in an aquaponic system. The controller will notify if ORP falls below the setpoint, killing fish and plants. Requirement: ORP monitor must be ON all the time

- Feeding Function: This control function uses a solenoid valve to add nutrients to increase the ORP of the aquaponic system to keep the fish healthy. It monitors its running status and records it into the local Syslog server for analysis. Requirement: Feeding control must be ON when needed & OFF when not needed- pH Control: This control function uses a solenoid valve to add or remove water to increase or decrease the pH of an aquaponic system according to a set point to keep the plants healthy. It monitors its running status and records it into the local Syslog server for analysis. Requirement: pH control must be ON when needed & OFF when not needed

- Water Temp Control: This control function uses a solenoid valve to add or remove water to increase or decrease the water temperature of an aquaponic system according to the setpoint to keep the plants healthy. It monitors its running status and records it into the local Syslog server for analysis. Requirement: Water temp control must be ON when needed & OFF when not needed

- pH Control: This control function uses a solenoid valve to add nutrients to increase the ORP of the aquaponic system to keep the fish healthy. It monitors its running status and records it into the local Syslog server for analysis. Requirement: Feeding control must be ON when needed & OFF when not needed

- Water Temp Control: This control function uses a solenoid valve to add or remove water to increase or decrease the water temperature of an aquaponic system according to the setpoint to keep the plants healthy. It monitors its running status and records it into the local Syslog server for analysis. Requirement: Water temp control must be ON when needed & OFF when not needed

Interlocking & Local Manual Control:

- Users can enter the system with the RFID card to open the door and turn on/off each function.

- When pH is less than 4, the controller will close all solenoid valves to stop water circulation so that the pH will raise by itself to a healthier level.

- When a user uses manual buttons under the 'Emergency' situation, users can turn ON/OFF any function they want.

- If all functions are turned OFF manually in emergencies, users can turn them back to automatic control mode by entering into the system with an RFID card again. Implementation: Arduino Uno R3 microcontroller board for controlling voltage sent through lid switches; 5v relay module for turning solenoid valves on or off; buzzer for alarm; LCD monitor for displaying system status; Ethernet shield R3 microcontroller board to connect Raspberry Pi and Arduino board.

- When the water temperature is less than 4 degrees, the controller will close the solenoid valve of the feeding function to stop nutrient injection so that the water temperature will rise by itself.

- If pH is less than 4, the controller will open all solenoid valves to increase pH by adding more water or removing water from the system.

- Users can enter the aquaponic monitoring room with an RFID card and manually trigger any control functions if necessary.

Implementation: Raspberry Pi 3B+ as Syslog server to communicate with controllers via serial ports; Ethernet shield R3 microcontroller board to connect Raspberry Pi and Arduino board.

- When the water temperature is greater than or equal to 26 degrees, the controller will close all solenoid valves to stop water circulation so that the water temperature will drop by itself.

- If pH is greater than 8, the controller will open all solenoid valves to decrease pH by adding more water or removing water from the system.

- Users can enter the aquaponic monitoring room with an RFID card and manually trigger any control functions if necessary. Implementation: Raspberry Pi as Syslog server for data storage; Ethernet shield R3 microcontroller board to connect Raspberry Pi and Arduino board. Result: Due to having less number of components used, this design has a smaller footprint and works better than other designs.

- When the water temperature is greater than or equal to 26 degrees, the controller will close all solenoid valves to stop water circulation so that the water temperature will drop by itself.

- If pH is greater than 8, the controller will open all solenoid valves to decrease pH by adding more water or removing water from the system.

- Users can enter the aquaponic monitoring room with an RFID card and manually trigger any control functions if necessary. Implementation: Raspberry Pi as Syslog server for data storage; Ethernet shield R3 microcontroller board to connect Raspberry Pi and Arduino board. Result: Due to having less number of components used, this design has a smaller footprint and works better than other designs.

Logic Diagrams & Operation Equations

- If the water temp is less than 4, the controller will close the solenoid valve of the feeding function to stop nutrient injection so that the water temperature will rise by itself.

- When pH is less than 4, the controller will close all solenoid valves to stop water circulation so that the pH will raise by itself to a healthier level.

- If users turn off any functions manually under an 'Emergency' situation, they can turn them back on by entering the aquaponic monitoring room with an RFID card. Implementation: Arduino Uno R3 microcontroller board for controlling voltage sent through lid switches; 5v relay module for turning solenoid valves on or off; buzzer for alarm; LCD monitor for displaying system status; Ethernet shield R3 microcontroller board to connect Raspberry Pi and Arduino board.

- If the water temp is less than 4, the controller will close the solenoid valve of the feeding function to stop nutrient injection so that the water temperature will rise by itself.

- When pH is less than 4, the controller will close all solenoid valves to stop water circulation so that pH will raise by itself to a healthier level.

- If users turn off any functions manually under an 'Emergency' situation, they can turn them back on by entering the aquaponic monitoring room with an RFID card. Implementation: Raspberry Pi 3B+ as Syslog server to communicate with controllers via serial ports; Ethernet shield R3 microcontroller board to connect Raspberry Pi and Arduino board.

Result: This design allows users to operate the controller from a distance or allow more than one person to control it at a time.

Logic Diagrams & Operation Equations:

- If the water temp is greater than or equal to 26 degrees, the controller will close all solenoid valves to stop water circulation so that the water temperature will drop by itself.

- If pH is greater than 8, the controller will open all solenoid valves to decrease pH by adding more water or removing water from the system.

- Users can enter the aquaponic monitoring room with an RFID card and manually trigger any control functions if necessary. Implementation: Arduino Uno R3 microcontroller board for controlling voltage sent through lid switches; 5v relay module for turning solenoid valves on or off; buzzer for alarm; LCD monitor for displaying system status; Ethernet shield R3 microcontroller board to connect Raspberry Pi and Arduino board.

- When the water temperature is greater than or equal to 26 degrees, the controller will close all solenoid valves to stop water circulation so that the water temperature will drop by itself.

- If pH is greater than 8, the controller will open all solenoid valves to decrease pH by adding more water or removing water from the system.

- Users can enter the room with an RFID card and manually trigger any control functions if necessary. Implementation: Raspberry Pi 3B+ as Syslog server to communicate with controllers via serial ports; Ethernet shield R3 microcontroller board to connect Raspberry Pi and Arduino board.

Result: This design allows users to operate the controller from a distance or allow more than one person to control it at a time.

RFID readers can be placed in each room for security reasons, such as when people enter rooms that they don't have permission to access, then they'll need to answer some questions that they didn't know the answers to by heart; therefore, it will stop unauthorized persons entering specific areas within aquaponic monitoring stations - sensors underwater may be affected by pressure and can be easily disconnected.

- The pH sensor is the most important because it monitors and records changes in pH levels and sends data to Arduino Uno, which converts the data into a digital value for Raspberry Pi to record and analyze via Microsoft Excel. Implementation: Raspberry Pi 3B+ as Syslog server to communicate with controllers via serial ports; Ethernet shield R3 microcontroller board to connect Raspberry Pi and Arduino board.

Result: This design allows users to access all of their aquaponic monitoring station's data easily - if large amounts of water are removed over a short amount of time, then the plants will not have enough nutrients left in their tank; therefore, you need sensors that can monitor water level or nutrient level continuously and send the data to Raspberry Pi for further analysis and computation.

- A large amount of water can be removed if there is a leak in the tank or if users want to perform maintenance on specific plants - sensors that monitor water level need to resist corrosion as they will be submerged underwater all the time. Implementation: 5v relay module for turning solenoid valves on or off; buzzer for alarm; LCD monitor for displaying system status; Ethernet shield R3 microcontroller board to connect Raspberry Pi and Arduino board.

- If pH levels drop below 5, then an alarm will sound and LED lights at aquaponic monitoring stations will flash red.

- Users can enter the room with an RFID card and manually trigger any control functions if necessary. Implementation: Raspberry Pi 3B+ as Syslog server to communicate with controllers via serial ports; Ethernet shield R3 microcontroller board to connect Raspberry Pi and Arduino board.

- A large amount of water can be added if there is a drought or plants are not thriving.

Result: This design allows users to perform maintenance more efficiently while still maintaining the safety of the aquaponic farming system - after installing all sensors underwater, make sure they are sealed well so that moisture won't damage them over time (due to corroding) - some plants require more nutrients than others for them to grow properly; therefore, you need sensors that monitor nutrient levels continuously.

- After tests conducted by Dr. Sudrajat at UPM, the pH of the system has been shown to decrease from 7.8 to 5.4 after 8 hours due to artificial lighting being kept on overnight - if nutrient levels drop below a certain amount of nutrients, then an alarm will sound and LED lights at aquaponic monitoring stations will flash red.

Implementation: 5v relay module for turning solenoid valves on or off; buzzer for alarm; LCD monitor for displaying system status; Ethernet shield R3 microcontroller board to connect Raspberry Pi and Arduino board.

- A large amount of water can be added if there is a drought or plants are not thriving.

Result: This design allows users to perform maintenance more efficiently while still maintaining the safety of the aquaponic farming system - after installing all sensors underwater, make sure they are sealed well so that moisture won't damage them over time (due to corroding).

- A large amount of water can be removed if there is a leak in the tank or if users want to perform maintenance on specific plants. Implementation: 5v relay module for turning solenoid valves on or off; buzzer for alarm; LCD monitor for displaying system status; Ethernet shield R3 microcontroller board to connect Raspberry Pi and Arduino board.

Result: This design allows users to access their aquaponic monitoring station's data easily. If pH levels drop below 5, an alarm will sound and LED lights at aquaponic monitoring stations will flash red.

- Users can enter the room with an RFID card and manually trigger any control functions if necessary.

Implementation: Raspberry Pi 3B+ as Syslog server to communicate with controllers via serial ports; Ethernet shield R3 microcontroller board to connect Raspberry Pi and Arduino board.

Result: This design allows users to perform maintenance more efficiently while still maintaining the safety of the aquaponic farming system - after installing all sensors underwater, make sure they are sealed well so that moisture won't damage them over time (due to corroding). Some plants require more nutrients than others to grow correctly; therefore, you need sensors that continuously monitor nutrient levels.

- After tests by Dr. Sudrajat at UPM, the pH of the system has been shown to decrease from 7.8 to 5.4 after 8 hours due to artificial lighting being kept on overnight - if nutrient levels drop below a certain amount of nutrients, then an alarm will sound and LED lights at aquaponic monitoring stations will flash red. Implementation: 5v relay module for turning solenoid valves on or off; buzzer for alarm; LCD monitor for displaying system status; Ethernet shield R3 microcontroller board to connect Raspberry Pi and Arduino board.

- A large amount of water can be removed if there is a leak in the tank or if users want to perform maintenance on specific plants.

Implementation: 5v relay module for turning solenoid valves on or off; buzzer for alarm; LCD monitor for displaying system status; Ethernet shield R3 microcontroller board to connect Raspberry Pi and Arduino board.

Result: This design allows users to access their aquaponic monitoring station's data easily. If pH levels drop below 5, an alarm will sound and LED lights at aquaponic monitoring stations will flash red.

- Users can enter the room with an RFID card and manually trigger any control functions if necessary. Implementation: Raspberry Pi 3B+ as Syslog server to communicate with controllers via serial ports; Ethernet shield R3 microcontroller board to connect Raspberry Pi and Arduino board.

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