Dns Routing

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Preview These features are covered under the PreGa Offers Terms and Services. Pre-ga versions may be restricted in their use, or changes in the features may not be compatible with any other versions. More details can be found in the launch stage description. Domain routing rules control traffic according to querying or geolocations, for example. You can configure route policies by generating a special ResourceRecordSet with specific routing policy values. This page provides information on creating, editing, or deleting DNS routing settings via a cloud DNS query.

If you are looking for a new ISP

Geolance is an innovative DNS routing service that allows companies to create dynamic DNS configurations with geographically distributed ISPs. This ensures optimal reliability, performance, and security for your company's network. We are the only solution on the market today that provides this level of flexibility in your business's Internet connectivity.

If you want to increase uptime and reduce latency in your network, then Geolance is right for you! Our team will work with you every step of the way to ensure we configure our system exactly how it needs to be set up so that it works seamlessly within your existing infrastructure. You won't find another company like us on the market today – we are truly unique!

DNS difficulties

Are one of the main problems caused by DDoS attacks. Cloud DNS allows you to create routing policies that help control traffic depending on where it comes from and its aim. With these policies, you can only allow connections from specific networks, excluding all others. So, for example, if an attack occurs on your servers located in China, but no client except those in China are allowed to access them, you will be able to mitigate the attack.

Routing policy management benefits: Flexibility with multiple traffic routes Customizable rules-based on geo-specific locations Lower latency for critical applications Ability to identify regions for load balancing Lower network bandwidth usage per application flow Prevention of Denial of Service (DoS) attacks Targeted DoS mitigation through increased visibility of traffic flow More accurate attack vector identification with increased visibility of geo-specific traffic flows Ability to allow only the most stable regions for load balancing

Cloud DNS uses Route53 as its Managed DNS platform. You can manage your routes using Route53 communities and match based on ASN numbers.

Route53 is a highly available and scalable cloud Domain Name System (DNS) web service that you can use to create responsive routing policies for your domain names. Cloud DNS helps you control how incoming traffic flows are directed according to geographic location, IP address or port, type of traffic, or performance metrics such as minimum throughput or availability requirements. The core principle behind these features is to help you route HTTP(S), TCP-UDP, ICMP(v4 & v6), and DNS traffic to your applications more efficiently.

Route53 addresses the following requirements: High availability, reliability, and scalability for critical business applications Requests can be routed based on any number of factors such as geography, IP address or port, load balancing requirements, service level agreements (SLAs), latency, and packet loss Tracking requests with advanced analytics Identifying real-time trends in network security threats Identification of sources generating a high number of queries to help optimize infrastructure costs Ability to freely route queries from one region to another Ability to restrict routing based on geographic location or ASN Ability to use different routing policies depending on the type of query DDoS mitigation through increased visibility into geo-specific traffic flows More accurate attack vector identification with increased visibility of geo-specific traffic flows

Geo routing is one of the important features that you can use to route your name authoritative DNS server based on geographical location. You can configure the cloud DNS to direct incoming queries for a zone to any number of authoritative name servers. This feature helps you manage high volumes of traffic by directing them according to their country or region of origin, so they are routed only via data centers with optimized infrastructure or highly-redundant infrastructure across various regions. Another major benefit of cloud GeoRouting is its ability to protect your infrastructure against DDoS attacks in real-time by identifying an attack's source and mitigating the damage by rerouting all malicious requests via specific IPs in AWS's network that serve as 'shields'. The following video will show you in detail, the process of DDoS mitigation via GeoRouting:

As mentioned earlier, Route53 is a highly scalable and available DNS web service. AWS's infrastructure ensures that your cloud DNS services remain up and running when you use Route53. It also enables you to scale your application whenever required without any downtime. Some major features of Route53 are:   Scalability  - You can add or remove name servers from a hosted zone without affecting its DNS queries Availability  - The utility of the cloud helps you mitigate any possible interruptions caused by hardware failures and protects against DDoS attacks Security  - Ensures complete security of your domain names by offering DNSSEC and enabling only authorized users to change records Tooling  - You can easily import and export your hosted zones to Route53 APIs

Route53 is integrated with Auto Scaling, Elastic Load Balancing, Amazon CloudWatch Monitoring, AWS Elastic Beanstalk Application load balancers, etc., which enables you to configure highly available applications. It also provides a DNS web service interface that you can use to implement robust REST-based applications using the following features: Integration of several AWS services through simple API calls for all network protocols Added security by offering DNSSEC support Ability to specify custom source IP addresses Internally initiated traffic is never sent publicly Ability to create multiple records of different types in one request Ability to send notifications about certain events Access control via IAM policies Restrict on data type Support for IPv6 DNS-based routing capability Flexible support for CNAMEs Ability to change TTL Using AWS's globally distributed Anycast network, Route53 enables you to provide the following benefits for your applications:

Reliability   You can easily create highly available and scalable applications by configuring Route 53 DNS servers Availability  - The global Anycast network of AWS allows you to route end-user requests to the closest edge location to provide fast access to content Security  - Route 53 uses security measures that protect against accidental or malicious changes through industry-standard methods like DNSSEC Tooling  - You can use APIs or an easy web interface provided by AWS Management Console for creating, modifying, migrating, copying, deleting, etc. hosted zones Secure domain names with Route53's support for DNSSEC.

Instructions change my laptop's DNS server.

1. Click on the Start Button and either click on "Control Panel" or right-click on "Computer" from the start menu and select Manage.

2. In the window that pops up, navigate to Networking -> Network Connections.

3. Right-click on your current connection and select Properties. If you are not sure which network connection is your current one, you can find it by clicking Detect under the connections box.

4. Under This connection use the following items, scroll down until you see Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4). Click Properties. You should see a dialog box pop up that looks like this:

  5. Select Use The Following DNS Server Addresses. Type in Google's public DNS server in the boxes provided and click OK.

  6. Confirm that the settings were changed successfully by clicking Ok on this screen:

7. Restart your computer for good measure (this is necessary in most cases) and you should now be using Google's Public DNS servers!

Domain name

A domain name is an identification string that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority, or control within the Internet. Domain names are formed by the rules and procedures of the Domain Name System (DNS). A domain name represents an Internet Protocol (IP) resource, such as a personal computer used to access the Internet, a server computer hosting a website, or the website itself or any other service communicated via the Internet. Domain names are organized in subordinate levels (subdomains) of the DNS root domain, which is nameless. The first-level set of domain names is the top-level domains (TLDs), including the generic top-level domains (gTLDs), such as the prominent domains com, info, net, edu, and org, and the country code top-level domains (ccTLDs). Below these top-level domains in the DNS hierarchy are the second-level and third-level domain names that are typically open for reservation by end-users who wish to connect local area networks to the Internet or want to establish a website with a distinctive name.

DNS Routing

Domain Name System (DNS) routing is the process by which Internet Service Provider (ISP) directs client DNS traffic to an optimal location. These locations are defined by either the organization's performance, security, or policy requirements using the ISP's network. Historically this routing has been configuration driven with static routes in hardware routers at each site in a network; however, as networks grow and become more complex, dynamic DNS configurations with geographically distributed ISPs are required for optimal reliability, performance, and security.

This can be achieved through route-based load balancing on advanced router platforms like Cisco's Content Services Switches (CSS). Route 53 also provides this functionality as a simple cloud DNS service accessible from anywhere on the web. The following shows how a large number of dynamic DNS configurations can be managed using Route 53 as a central engine. Every time the ISP configuration changes, the DNS routing policy will automatically follow suit and change to match it.

DNS Routing work process

There are two steps involved in getting your domain name to route properly: 1. Determine what IP address you should use for your website 2. Most importantly, tell other people about that IP address Here's a quick guide on how all this works:

1. Determine static IP Addresses given public names Static IP addresses can usually be determined from a hostname using a tool such as nslookup or dig :

As you may have noticed from looking at those examples, if someone types in "example.com", their computer will first ask the DNS servers where the website is. The DNS servers will then determine what actual IP address they should use for example.com. 2. Tell everyone else about your static IP addresses If you want people to visit your website using "example.com", you need to tell the rest of the Internet what IP address is associated with "example.com ." This is called a DNS record, and there are two types: A records and NS records (for IPv4 & IPv6).

A Records

An A record maps an Alias (Domain Name) to an IP Address An A Record maps an alias (domain name) to an IP address, whether that's a Google Docs document or a web page on Blogger.com. Cache DNS records are a simple mapping from a domain name to an IP address, and since they're usually the first record listed in DNS settings, you can think of them as "pointers" to your website's actual location.

Here is what the syntax looks like:

A Record(Host): Value It simply tells people about an alias (host) and what value it has for that host. So if you wanted everyone to know that mydomainname.blogspot.com points to 192.068.58.183, you would add the following line: my domain name. blogspot. com A 192 . 068. 58. 183 This means that when someone types my domain name Blogspot. com into their browser, they will be directed to the right place.

NS Records

An NS record maps a hostname to a zone's DNS servers An NS record tells other name servers where your zone is located on the Internet. It also specifies which name servers are responsible for that zone. So if you wanted everyone else to think that Blogger has the authority over "Blogspot" then you would add this line:

Blogger. com NS ns1. google. com ns2. google. com ns3. google. com [...] Notice how Google owns the domain "Blogspot." This means if anyone types in "Blogspot", their computer will ask Google where it should go. How Domain Registration works Once someone knows what IP address they should use for a hostname, they need to know which domain name goes with that IP address. For other people to find you based on your hostname, the other people looking must be told what domain name should receive traffic from your hostname. This is where domain registration comes in. The person who registers themselves as the owner of a domain name becomes the zone's administrator and has full authority over it (for better or worse). Many DNS servers around the world are configured to ask central authorities like VeriSign or DynDNS for help with resolving domain names instead of trying out different servers one at a time.

DNS is under attack by a group of attackers called "cybercriminals" to take down websites and attack the DNS servers. They use what is called "DDoS Attack" (Distributed Denial of Service). When you type in a website like google.com, your browser first gets information from DNS servers before making the connection using the HTTP protocol. The DDoS attack makes it impossible for people to connect with specific websites or DNS servers, making all internet searches haywire. Even ISPs come under attack and we lose access completely to the World Wide Web (for some time at least) until service providers fix issues on their end and restore our access to the web.

DDoS Attack

A distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack happens when an attacker uses multiple systems to flood the bandwidth or resources of a targeted system – usually one or more web servers. By amplifying network traffic as the attack moves through the network, attackers can overflow the logical buffers of routers and switches with corrupted packets, causing them to fail open or shut down completely. When those devices fail open, they reveal their IP addresses for all those hosts that sent requests, which makes it possible for an attacker to use those resources for further attacks on other targets. How ISPs deal with DDoS Attacks ISPs have a "traffic quota" that they've set aside on their end to allocate bandwidth per day/month/year. Suppose an ISP allocates only 10Mbps of data on the Internet for their 100 subscribers, and suddenly everyone is trying to send out a hundred times more than normal (because one of your friends tweeted about how awesome you were). In that case, all requests will start timing out because ISPs can't handle that many packets in such a short amount of time. It's like saying "can we fit 50 people inside this elevator?" and someone pushing the buttons until it says that it can't anymore and no new passengers would be allowed inside (seriously, don't try that).

Steps to prevent my website from getting DDoSed

There are different ways you could help mitigate attacks on your websites. For example:

Limit requests per second Reboot server and change hard disk configurations if possible Upgrade your servers and configure them properly Reboot DNS with a different IP address Disable the service that is getting attacked

You can also monitor which type of activities are happening on your servers. If you see high CPU utilization, high memory usage, high I/O rates, or low network throughput as the sign of an attack (which is usually followed up by lots of requests or packets hitting your web servers), then it would be best for you to check which sites are affected. If it's affecting only one site, then there is a possibility that someone could be trying to DDoS attack your websites and not others. You'll need to contact your ISP and tell them that something weird is going on with your connection

CloudFlare helps to prevent DDoS attacks.

Cloudflare is a content delivery network (CDN) which means that we have multiple data centers around the world and we use DNS to point your website's visitors to the closest location. By using Cloudflare, you're telling the Internet that you would like all of your users to connect to your site through our connection because it's faster than yours. Of course, there are other benefits such as speed and security but in this case, we will be talking about how we can help mitigate DDoS attacks on web applications and websites by basically sending all external requests through us while still showing them their website. Instead of trying out different DNS servers one at a time when the attacker tries to flood your server with different kinds of requests, Cloudflare's data centers are already set up with best practices in place so that even if the attacker were to send out a million connections at once, it would still not affect the ability of your website being served.

Take note! We can't prevent 100% of attacks because while some attackers use bots or compromised machines on their end to do the attack, there are also cases where attackers use web servers they've compromised on their end as well. If you're interested in learning more about DDoS attacks and how Cloudflare works, feel free to visit our Resources page for this topic.

Functional components of CloudFlare's CDN

Three main components allow us to help prevent DDoS attacks. These are Page Rules, the WAF (Web Application Firewall), and Threat Intelligence. Page Rules work by allowing you to set up different rules on Cloudflare's end for certain requests like getting or POST. You can decide which data center (a physical location with hundreds of servers) would handle the request depending on what country you want the visitor to come from. The WAF helps filter out malicious traffic before it even hits your server. It does this by identifying bots or compromised websites that also use our data centers to do their attack (we only let them see your website if they're not doing an attack on it). Please note that the WAF will still allow legitimate requests to get through. This means you only need to worry about malicious requests being served by your website instead of legitimate requests, which can be a lot more work for you, even if they're trying to stop the attack. Threat Intelligence is how we gather information about what kinds of attacks are happening, who's behind them, and where they came from. The more data we have, the better Cloudflare can help protect your site.

The Best DNS Server

If you're wondering which DNS server to use, then the best answer that I can give is CloudFlare's public DNS. It was made specifically for website owners who don't want DDoS attacks on their site and it gives you access to all of our Performance and Security features so you can enjoy them at no additional cost. You would need to change your DNS settings to point towards the IP address 1.1.1.1 or 1.0.0.1 depending on where in the world you are from (e.g Europe vs US). A lot of ISPs automatically do this for free as well as many web hosting companies as long as your account with them doesn't have a "fixed" IP address which means that they're not "renting" the IP address from them and that you're allowed to change your DNS settings.

DNS message format

To help you better understand how DNS works, let's look at the message formats used when sending data from one server to another. You can think of it as a "form" that your computer fills up and sends to a remote server so it knows what kind of information you want.

As you can see in Figure 1 above, there are several types of records being requested including A for IPv4 addresses, AAAA for IPv6 addresses, MX which tells us where we can find email servers, NS which tells us where we can find name servers (just like how your ISP has their name servers), TXT which allows us to add an extra layer of information to the response message, and SRV which allows us to find certain types of servers like NTP servers or FTP servers. CloudFlare's DNS server follows all of these standards so it can work seamlessly with your ISP's name servers (e.g Google Public DNS, OpenDNS). If you want to learn more about how DNS works including all of the different features that each type of record will offer, I recommend visiting this site for some great tutorials.

Job DNS servers do

DNS servers are one of those things that most people don't know much about, but they rely on it every day. They're like a phone book that allows you to find somebody's phone number or physical address (well I guess now we use the Internet instead of phone books).

Before you begin

You need to know the difference between "authoritative" and "caching" DNS servers. Authoritative name servers are the ones that store data which means they will always have the most up-to-date records for your domain. These can be both public or private (if you want them to). On the other hand, catching servers only work with cached information, which means that they never keep any of your domain's records unless it is requested by somebody else first. The main reason why people use caching servers instead of authoritative is that they're faster at responding since all they do is look up information in their cache before getting a response from another server (that's why it takes time for things CloudFlare's page load times to update).

If you want to run your caching server, the most popular one out there is called Bind. It's open-source and can be downloaded here. But I would recommend using Cloudflare instead since they have their servers running in more than 70 different locations worldwide, which means that your website will load at blazing speeds no matter where you are coming from.

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