IoT (Internet of Things)


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The Internet of Things describes physical items (or systems containing sensors, processing capabilities, software, and other technologies) connected through the internet. The term "smart homes" refers most specifically to home products linked with IoT technology in consumer markets. There are several worries about the dangers posed by IoT technology in the future. Industry and government initiatives have begun to address these issues, including developing international and local standards, guidelines, and regulatory structures. IoT can be used in medical technology, including intelligent speakers and home appliances in general.

It can be used in home appliances such as intelligent air conditioners, refrigerators, washing machines/clothes dryers, vacuum cleaners and robot cleaners.

In the future, there will be more development of IoT technology to create smart homes that have a fully automated system from lack of use or time of day. In addition, homes with intelligent locks designed for ease-of-use and security purposes will also become an integral part of the internet of things. In the future, it is believed that "smart" homes will help significantly reduce energy usage by optimizing temperature control and management across multiple zones or floors, determining whether windows should be open or closed on a given day based on weather forecasts, and using occupancy sensors within lighting controls to turn lights off when rooms are unoccupied and other similar activities. This could help significantly reduce energy usage, especially as intelligent grid technology becomes more widespread.

One of the first indeed "smart" homes was Mycenaean Alepotrypa Cave, an underground settlement in the Peloponnese region of Greece from 3600 to 3000 BC. Many storage jars in various rooms indicate that staples such as olive oil, wine, beans, and wheat were actively stocked and routinely used by the occupants, with some automation employed for labour-saving purposes. Another example is the Ancient Roman Villa Poiana in present-day Croatia that had a fully automated hypocaust system providing both heatings to local rooms via underfloor of hot air supply and running freshwater into a sophisticated plumbing system.

In the future, there will be more automation in homes. With this, people won't have to do things they may not want to/not have time for. For example, you could go on vacation in the future, and your house would know you were gone, and it would adjust its schedule accordingly to match yours when you are at home. The alarm clock may already start going off 5 minutes earlier than usual because it knows how long it takes you to get ready for work. You can save much energy by having all of these things automated in a smart home, which is one of the main reasons why people are becoming more attracted to having intelligent homes in their lives.

What industries can benefit from IoT?

Manufacturers may enhance their competitive position by monitoring production line equipment to enable pro-active maintenance when sensors detect an impending failure. In addition, IoT applications to monitor temperature-sensitive inventory such as food and beverage, flower, and pharmaceuticals would significantly benefit. Similar benefits of an IoT for public administration are available in services environments. For example, government power firms can use IoT systems to tell their customers that there have been mass outages and sometimes even minor breakdowns in power, electricity, or. A customer could quickly call a power firm to report the outage and ask for help.

Security guards can use the IoT to watch certain areas such as airports, casinos, etc. This will allow them to see if there is any suspicious activity going on in their "watch-zone" through live camera feeds that are connected to the Internet of Things. You may also monitor your physical health more accurately by having an implanted device that sends information about your body temperature and blood pressure levels directly to your doctor, who will watch it closely and make sure you stay healthy and avoid injury or sickness. The proposed standard focuses on four main components: interoperability; transport protocols; terminology; and the future development of IoT applications, devices, and networks.

The perfect example of why this would be done is because if you are sick or injured, you could tell your doctor what you are saying/feeling before they can even see it for themselves through medical records. This would allow the doctor to monitor your health more closely and try to figure out what is wrong with you so they can treat the issue before it becomes something more significant or life-threatening.

More examples include controlling physical aspects of one's home system directly from an Internet browser, which enables individuals to control heating, ventilation remotely and air conditioning (HVAC) systems as well as lighting circuits at their convenience from their mobile devices or tablet computer without any additional specialized hardware requirements other than a local WiFi router. In the future, this technology will be integrated into many other devices that we have in our lives, such as toys, watches, computers, TVs, etc. For example, this would allow us to turn on our TV from any location around the world rather than having to get up and physically switch it off or on.

Can you list the benefits of IoT?

The internet presents several benefits for organizations. Some benefits are industry-focused or can be applied to different sectors. Sensors can be used by example to monitor events or changes in the structure or movement of buildings or bridges. IoT may improve farmers' work. The IoT is a technique used for monitoring and managing the electrical/mechanical circuitry of a building. Smart cities could help reduce the amount of waste and energy used per household. IoT affects each industry, including health and financial institutions, retailers and manufacturers.

IoT can be used in various sectors such as manufacturing, health care, city planning and retail. For example, the internet lets individuals remotely control their heating, ventilation and air conditioning from a mobile device or tablet computer. IoT is revolutionizing the workplace by making it possible to monitor worker's activities in real-time. Internet-connected machines in factories could help managers keep track of equipment problems and prevent disruptions before they happen. The IoT will benefit all business types by increasing productivity and efficiency by collecting and analyzing data that can enhance decision-making processes at work, home, and everywhere in between, ultimately making people's lives easier while maintaining comfort levels in their daily lives.

The significant benefits I see are:

1) Ability to monitor health at a more accurate level

2) Ability to be alerted if someone enters an area where they are not allowed

3) Ability to turn your home into a "smart home" for convenience

4) Ability to connect all electronic devices that you own through the internet.

How is the IoT changing the world?

The use of IoT allows users to run their cars remotely. Car manufacturers in Europe have agreed to book services for themselves at the last minute. The connected vehicle enables car companies or dealers to switch the automobile ownership model. Moreover, with connected cars, manufacturers can maintain an ongoing relationship with their customers. Instead of selling cars, they can charge drivers usage fees – offering a transportation-as-a-service – using autonomous vehicles. IoT allows producers to continuously update their cars with new software, a significant departure from traditional model car ownership in which vehicles immediately decline in performance and value. Consumers would pay a monthly fee to drive any car in an autonomous fleet. These services will likely be priced according to the car's "mileage" and availability rather than on size or features.

There are many benefits of IoT that includes: 

1). We can get better health care by using IoT devices 

2). Enable people who are working on getting things done without having too much movement 

3). enable entire cities to get more innovative 

4). Enable entire offices, households and communities to become more efficient 

5). Limit wastage of time and resources 

6). Maintain quality of life at each age 

7). Make homes safer 

8). Help industries work better 

9). Facilitate new business models 

10). Ensure sustainable development 

11). Improve our efficiency 

12). Get new insights from the data collected, which would otherwise have been missed 

13). Keep our homes more secure 

14). Make life at work more efficient and productive 

15). Reduce traffic jams 

16). Improve overall security 

17). Increase general safety 

18). Ensure environment-friendly development 

19). Prevent accidents in heavy machinery 

20). Monitor crucial infrastructure like power grids, nuclear power plants, dams, bridges 

21). Engage with customers on a much deeper level than ever before 

22). Enable new levels of customer service 

23). Give immediate feedback to products through user comments 

24).greatly reduce fraud 

25). Be able to monitor workplace activity life 

26). Enable better product design 

27). Enable real-time pricing 

28). Enhance voice recognition 

29). Data can be used for research purposes to achieve breakthroughs in medicine, computer science and other fields. 

30). improve productivity 

31). Achieve a level of automation that was not possible before 

32). Improve the standard of living 

33). Enable much more sophisticated responses to events

What is the Network Equation?

Network Equation is an application/software that allows you to monitor your home from anywhere worldwide. The app uses wireless signals as a source instead of using an actual video camera. With this, it gives you the comfort of knowing what's going on at all times without having to pay monthly fees for expensive security cameras or setting up those complicated cameras! This app also has many excellent features, such as watching the cams on your phone, tablet, or computer. You can also use motion detection with the app, so you will get alerted if anything's going on! In addition, you can talk to people at home through two-way communication, which is very helpful if someone needs help from another room inside the house.

The IoT enables a more intelligent planet by connecting devices, systems and services to provide information that helps us solve problems in new ways:

1) Monitoring high risk or dangerous areas with security and safety alerts

2) Allowing entertainment devices like video games consoles and smart TVs to work together seamlessly

3) Tracking ships in real-time with GPS via satellite

4) Significantly reducing energy consumption

5) Managing information and communications for uncrewed vehicles

Risks associated with the IoT:

1) Cyber-attacks such as DDoS (Distributed denial of service attacks), hacking and unauthorized access can be used to target devices, systems, applications and services within the network

2) Privacy concerns may arise as users may not trust that their data will be used appropriately

3) Legal issues arise when the IoT is involved in any crime or incident. This may result from illegal surveillance or accidents caused by hacked robots or autonomous vehicles. In addition, location tracking from wearable devices will need to follow specific laws around privacy and consent.

Extensive research has been conducted on many types of technologies so far, which have made it possible to introduce a concept known as the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT is a modern concept that enables objects, devices, and services to be connected via the internet, enabling information sharing. This then allows applications to enhance their functionality.

The IoT has several benefits for both users and organizations by improving automation. It makes it possible for machines to communicate with each other regarding the availability of resources, predictive maintenance, etc., which can lead to improved efficiency in organizations and increased safety. Below are some key benefits of the IoT:

Network Equation APP will work even if your home or office WiFi malfunctions by using cellular data! On top of all this, you can use motion detection with the app, so you'll get alerts sent straight to your phone if anything's going on what you need to know about Network Equation App. It's the only app of its kind out there, so set yourself apart with this unique new application that allows you to monitor your home or anywhere around the world from any internet-connected device, phone, tablet or computer!

Cisco Systems,

Cisco Systems is a significant enterprise network technology partner. In this context, the company benefits by creating the internet infrastructure to provide its customers access to the latest mobile applications. The company is highly profitable with adjusted earnings of $13.7 billion on $59.3 billion for fiscal 2020. Investing in this stock makes it easy to get exposure to IoT without taking significant risks. Cisco still retains its lead over Google for an extended period and is expected to benefit from growth in the industry through the next two. The pandemic put pressure on Cisco's sales, but now Cisco is returning to change. An American multinational technology company reported that by 2020 the number of devices connected to the internet (IoT) would be between 25 and 50 billion. Companies like Samsung Electronics have started using IoT concepts by streamlining their operations with intelligent appliances. Smartphones are also getting key features that will enable them to act as IoT devices for other purposes, such as GPS tracking in cars.

What is industrial IoT?

IoT is a term that refers to the application of IoT technology in industrial sectors. Industrial Revolution 4.0, sometimes known as fourth-wave innovation, is another name for IIoT. Instrumenting and controlling sensors and actuators engaged in cloud applications are two examples of common usage. Monitoring and control of industrial systems is another example.

The idea behind IIoT starts with the evolution of factory automation and computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) technologies, which led to increasing digitization.

Some key benefits of IoT for industrial firms include:

· Reduction in production errors through better traceability and visibility of components being used

· Safer work environments since robots can be programmed to perform tasks without putting humans at risk of harm from moving machinery

· Reduced operating costs associated with improved operational efficiency by removing human error from manual tasks such as data entry or physical inspection processes

IoT devices for industrial applications vary greatly. Some standard IoT devices used include: Sensors – These are a type of hardware device that measures physical values (such as temperature, humidity, pressure, etc.) and transfers them to software for further processing. The sensors themselves often come in the form of an integrated chip or another electronic component. For example, an IoT sensor used for measuring temperature may use semiconductor technology to detect the presence of heat. Actuators – These devices cause a change in their environment based on data received from a controller. An actuator is any device that doesn't just receive information but acts on it by performing a specific action such as opening a valve or turning a shaft. Prognostics – This refers to the systematic identification of failures through continuous updates to prevent downtime and increase efficiency in production processes

Advanced Process Control Systems (APCs) – APCS systems can monitor processes in real-time and provide feedback on the state of a strategy to an operator. Using IoT, APCS can also access digital twins that model specific aspects of a physical plant. This allows for greater control over complex industrial processes.

Industrial IoT devices are used to monitor, collect and analyze data to provide better decision making. An example would be a factory that uses IoT sensors to ensure the safety of its workers by notifying managers when hazardous substances are present.

Internet of things security concerns

While there are many benefits associated with the rise of the IoT industry, similar cyber threats also pose serious consumer privacy and security threats. This is because, much like regular PCs, internet-connected devices have become an easy target for hackers looking for ways to steal or corrupt sensitive information through malware attacks. In addition, experts predict that next year's predicted lack of security will threaten our privacy.

Sensors can also capture information about your movements that you might not want to be shared, such as your location or even patterns in how you move around a specific space.

This is another example of an IoT security threat becoming more common – the threat to privacy and safety brought on by unsecured IoT devices. In October 2016, for instance, over 100,000 DVRs and webcams were hijacked by malware to launch a large-scale distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack against Dyn DNS servers. Hackers used unsecured IoT devices such as digital video recorders and security cameras to flood Dyn's DNS servers with traffic. This resulted in several popular websites such as Twitter, Netflix and PayPal experiencing connectivity issues due to the attack.

Various threats make the internet of things one of the vulnerable technologies of recent times. Some of the security concerns are mentioned below:      

1) Privacy concerns

2) Data insecurity

3) Weak authentication mechanisms      

4) Lack of awareness about privacy policies and terms and conditions.      

5) Open APIs provide loopholes for hackers to break into your system.    

6) Data analysis using IoT devices results in various privacy issues like reuse, unintended disclosure etc.

7) Furthermore, the internet is an easy access point for all cybercriminals to hack into specific devices without much effort. It has opened doors for them through numerous open-source protocols, enabling less skilled people to become a part of this game with minimum effort.

8) IoT devices use wireless technologies, making them more vulnerable to threats as they can be hacked from miles away.      

9) Weak encryption mechanism providing easy access to hackers and unauthorized users to your private data.      

10) Insecure product design, lack of testing for vulnerabilities etc., is a significant concern that needs attention to secure IoT devices.      

11) Lack of authentication, authorization and role-based access control mechanism further weakens the security provided by IoT devices, making them prone to cyber-attacks.      

12) Vulnerable at various levels like hardware, firmware, application-level software etc., if any one fails, the whole system fails, and devices become vulnerable to cyber-attacks.

13) IoT devices store data in an unencrypted format, making them easily accessible by hackers once they infect the machine with malware.      

14) Lack of ability to alter or update its software after deployment further deteriorates the security provided by such devices.

15) Focuses on comfort and convenience rather than security, resulting in various threats to internet-connected things, thus increasing risks for individuals and businesses alike. 16) Collection and exposure of users' personal information that might be used against their interests further increase privacy risk among other cyber threats.

17) IoT products lack experience about product life cycle during design and development, which makes them vulnerable and insecure.      

18) No integration with the existing security infrastructure is another critical issue related to IoT device's security.

19) Lack of an integrated cyber security strategy during the product life cycle increases the risk of using such devices as they become prone to various threats such as ransomware, Denial-of-Service attacks etc.

20) Presence of various vulnerabilities in the design and development phase allows easy entry for hackers inside your network, posing a threat to things and personal safety. In addition, these devices tend to collect private information about the user and their movements and location.

21) IoT devices connected to home networks through unsecured wireless connections can be easily hacked and used for DDoS attacks.

22) Lack of security testing services during design and development further makes these devices prone to such threats.  

23) Authentication mechanisms come with their own set of challenges like password management, absence of multifactor authentication, etc. This makes it difficult for users to manage their credentials whenever they want to access the device.    

Thus internet of things is full of threats that a user has to overcome to secure their system from various cyber threats. Complete integration between existing cybersecurity technologies and IoT Device security will provide a robust solution to end-users while protecting them from various online threats.

IoT in your home,

The connected and the IoT enable alarm clocks would reset themselves using the weather and speed of an individual vehicle. It could recognize that your usual train was cancelled and calculate the walking distance for your choice of route to work and determine when it needs to wake you, so you're never late. You might try to sync up with the coffee maker to ensure you've got enough caffeine ready for you to consume when you get up the next day. It is possible to sync to any coffee maker that connects to the device. Office, and even in your car, is becoming an integral part of our lives. But with this increased connectivity and dependency on they become more vulnerable to cyber-attacks. It has been measured that by 2020 there will be 50 billion IoT devices

 connected to the internet throughout the globe - which means more data security risk.

The average life expectancy for a threat is nearly 100 days. So it's not a question of whether you'll encounter danger, but when. With this increased adoption of IoT devices, we can expect a higher life expectancy for such threats and the severity of attacks.

IoT in transport

Sensors monitoring the fuel pump would send notifications to other drivers in the vehicle. The manufacturer may use data from the car to make a call for repair. It can provide directions to the nearest authorized service station, and they should have ordered an appropriate replacement part. Data collected by these sensors is sent to a diagnostic bus and then to the factory through a gateway that gives the most critical information to the inspector without allowing access to the vehicle's internal systems.

The IoT can monitor cars on the road and provide information about the temperature, oil levels, tire pressure etc. There would be no need for switches on street lamps as they could turn themselves on when needed based on usage patterns of users or sensors that detect traffic at intersections or busy areas.

Transportation authorities will be able to monitor traffic in real-time. It will help them in performing plannings of future traffic management policies efficiently by analyzing data collected from the vehicles while using the road infrastructures like speed limits, current speed etc., The advantage of using this technology is that it minimizes the workforce required for data collection while providing complete coverage area with minimal cost. 

The IoT in public places

Airports are implementing IoT solutions to monitor the movement of passengers through WiFi, Bluetooth, video surveillance. Using sensors deployed across gates and terminals can track passengers' mobile phones once they enter the premises. It will help answer fundamental questions like how long it takes for a person to walk from Gate A to Terminal B? How many people are coming through security before noon, at lunchtime, at dinner time, etc.? This Data is sent back to central servers, which helps airports run their operations smoothly.

Other IoT use cases include tracking buses on roads with real-time traffic updates that riders can use to plan better routes or catch early connections. Conveniently, the same sensors can determine when a bus breaks down and alert another to take its place.

The IoT provides excellent and innovative solutions to many real-world problems, but supporting this reliable communication requires sound design and architecture decisions. As we build smart homes, cars, offices, and cities, we must consider that devices will become more intelligent while simultaneously increasing their attack surface to cyber threats. If you agree with me, you should read this article about how to get started in programming so you can help secure your future world.

What technologies have made IoT possible?

The idea of The IoT has been around for long but technological advancement has made it practical. It involves various technologies thy. IoT devices are controlled or monitored by a range of telecommunication technologies. WiFi, Bluetooth and cellular networks have been used now, but they don't provide complete coverage to all areas. They also need much power, which is impossible in most IoT devices that run on batteries or scarce energy sources like solar energy.

Lora - Long Range Wide Area Network

a wireless telecommunications technology operating in the ultra-high frequency band from 10 kHz - 10 MHz from French startup Semtech and has been adopted by many telecommunication providers worldwide. Lora uses a narrowband data link with low requirements for spectrum allocation and is thus a potential candidate for next-generation short-range communications with IoT devices and sensors.

Internet of Things technology has been evolving rapidly, and we can expect many more advancements in the future. But as with every new technology, it will need to be developed carefully, considering all of its vulnerability points during the design phase. Thus we must understand the security implications involved in such high-speed advancement and take steps to ensure that our systems are secure enough for IoT commercialization.

How do I know if my device supports IoT?

Suppose you want your device to communicate using IoT protocols like WiFi or Bluetooth. In that case, you should check with your user manual or manufacturer's website whether your product supports these connectivity options. If not, you could still use them by purchasing compatible gateway devices. However, it would require an app installed on the gateway to connect to your smartphone.

IoT programming languages

As we know, IoT devices are embedded systems that will require coding and understanding of low-level protocols. IoT device programmers need a high degree of familiarity with C, C++, and other common languages like Python or Javascript because these would be used for low-level and user interface development. With more compatible networks, here is a list of languages you could start learning from this article :

1) C programming language -The Internet was built using C as its most popular operating system foundation language. It helps in writing any type of program from web servers, client-server apps, financial software etc. If you want to learn about IoT programming, then C is the best choice as it's used to create device drivers and low-level components that run on hardware.

2) C++ -This evolved version of C allows you to write intuitive code as it's object-oriented, so if you know how to program in the C language, then learning this would be easy using tutorials like these.

3) Python -Its simple syntax makes it easy to learn for beginners who are new to coding but make sure you study basics like control structures, strings, lists etc., before diving deep into complex stuff like OOPS features. Many online tutorials can get your Python skill up to speed in no time at all. In addition, it has libraries that let IoT developers connect with hardware like Arduino or raspberry pi that is primarily used in IoT projects.

4) Javascript -It's a client-side web scripting language with many frameworks developed for IoT devices. It may not be a full-fledged programming language, but it can help build prototypes and production-ready software. In addition, learning Javascript will help you work on the website designing part, so if you have a knack for being creative while coding, this could be the right choice for you.

5) Matlab -If you are looking to develop algorithms for IoT apps, Matlab is the best language to learn because its tools let developers ease developing complex stuff. It works on RaspberryPi and Arduino boards, so if you want hands-on experience, then learning Matlab is the best choice.

6) Visual Basic -Talking about customization, it's not as customizable as C++ but still lets you create small windows-like interfaces like these. There are many types of VB software available with unique features for different purposes, so make sure you choose one according to your requirement before starting learning this language.

7) Assembly Language (ASM) -It's a low-level programming language that lets programmers access computer hardware like memory, processor etc., directly rather than using high-level languages, making it faster in performance. Being an expert ASM programmer requires a thorough understanding of how computer hardware works, so think twice if you consider learning assembly language before taking this decision.

8) Lua -It's an open-source high-level programming language for scripting supported by many embedded systems. It works best with small software projects or games because of its minimalistic design but still can be used to create large-scale applications depending upon the requirement.

9) Javascript libraries - Some JS libraries like Johnny Five, ThingSpeak etc., enable you to control IoT hardware using JavaScript Code. The idea behind these libraries is pretty simple because it just converts your JS code into C++ and executes it on microcontrollers like Arduino and other IoT boards.

10) Node.js -This event-driven server-side JS framework helps programmers create scalable real-time apps, so if you ever thought of developing a chat application, then it's the best choice for you because of its non-blocking I/O model.

11) R -It's a programming language and software environment for statistical analysis, graphics representation and reporting. It has many libraries, making it easier for developers to build prototype IoT apps without spending much time analyzing data.

12) Scala -Scala is an object-oriented language that runs on Java Virtual Machine (JVM) but still lets you use functions written in java,c++ or other languages. If you want to play with data using coding, this could be the right choice as it lets programmers easily handle big data sets.

13) Lua -It's an open-source high-level programming language for scripting supported by many embedded systems. It works best with small software projects or games because of its minimalistic design but still can be used to create large-scale applications depending upon the requirement.

14) Go -It's a statically typed compiled language like C andC++ that compiles directly to an executable binary. If you are already familiar with one of these languages, then learning this would be easier; having said that, there aren't many libraries and support in place for IoT development using go.

15) Prolog -This declarative logic programming language has features like automatic backtracking, pattern matching, list processing etc., which makes it easier to build complex-based IoT apps.

16) Lisp -Lisp is a general-purpose dynamic programming language that gained so much popularity in the 80s and 90s as it built many AI-based apps. It supports functional and procedural paradigms, but nowadays, there aren't many lisp programmers available so if you want to learn this, then be ready for a steep learning curve.

17) Scala -It's an object-oriented language that runs on Java Virtual Machine (JVM) but still lets you use functions written in java,c++ or other languages. If you want to play with data using coding, this could be the right choice as it lets programmers easily handle big data sets.

18) Groovy -Groovy is a dynamic language for the Java platform that brings Python and Ruby features to Java programmers. If you are looking forward to developing some cool apps on Android or IOS, this could be one of the best choices.

19) Clojure -It's a dynamic programming language that runs on JVM and targets building complex real-time applications with a functional approach; it has many similarities with a common lisp like syntax but is relatively easier to learn than other languages.

20) Dart -Dart is an open-source web programming language developed by Google; it was designed along with Angular 2 and is shortly considered a replacement for Javascript. It supports object-oriented and functional programming styles like JS but provides more safety and tooling, making it easier for developers to build complex apps.

Unlock business value with IoT

As IoT becomes more common in the world, companies are profiting from the great opportunity it offers. IoT devices are designed to automate and optimize business processes. From real-time data collection to predictive maintenance, IoT requires companies to look at themselves differently.

If you are looking forward to developing some cool apps on Android or IOS, this could be one of the best choices.

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