SQL Injection

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A SQL Injection technique is a code injection method that can be used to execute an SQL application using malicious SQL statements into a data entry field. SQL injection can exploit vulnerabilities in application software. Injection SQL is usually used for attacks on websites and could also attack almost all SQL Databases.

Tell me the best way to detect an attack

There is no definitive answer to this question. Various methods can be used to detect an SQL injection attack, and the specific approach will vary depending on the particular web application and its configuration. Some standard techniques include:

-Using input validation techniques to check for malicious input before it is passed to the SQL database

-Using application monitoring tools to look for signs of unusual or unauthorized database activity

-Monitoring server logs for errors that may be indicative of a SQL injection attack

One of the most important things to protect your web applications from SQL injection attacks is to ensure that they are correctly configured and protected. You should use input validation techniques to check for malicious input, and you should also use application monitoring tools to help you detect and prevent any unauthorized activity. Additionally, you should monitor your server logs for errors that may indicate a SQL injection attack.

If you are using a web application firewall (WAF), it can also help to protect your site from SQL injection attacks. By analyzing all traffic coming to and from your site, a waf can identify suspicious activity that may indicate an SQL injection attack. The waf will take pre-defined action to keep your site protected if this happens. Like any other security measure, however, it is essential not to rely on firewalls alone for protection against SQL injection attacks. You also need to use additional security measures, such as input validation to help keep your site safe.

Do you have a website that uses SQL databases?

If so, it's time to get serious about your security. Hackers use SQL injection techniques to attack web sites and steal data from the database. It's not just a matter of getting hacked – it can lead to identity theft and stolen credit cards. Don't let this happen on your watch!

We use our experience in web development and penetration testing to help companies like yours keep their sites secure against hackers with SQL injection attacks. Our team comprises experts who know how these attacks work and what needs to be done to stop them before they happen on your site. So let us put our knowledge and skills at work for you today!

Capturing the errors from Extended Events

Microsoft extended events is a windows implementation of the unified logging system. It uses a high-performance log engine to store "events" from different sources, such as SQL Server and Windows Kernel.

In this example, we will use Extended Events to capture errors generated from a SQL injection attack. In addition, we will use the "SqlException" event, fired whenever an exception occurs in SQL Server. This event can be used to help you detect and prevent SQL injection attacks.

To start, we need to create a new Extended Events session. We will call this session "SQL injection."

Next, we need to add an event handler for the "SqlException" event. We will use this event handler to capture any errors generated from a SQL injection attack.

The final step is to start the Extended Events session. We can do this by running the following command:

start event session SqlInjection

Now, any errors generated from a SQL injection attack will be captured and stored in the Extended Events log. You can view this log by running the "events" command.

You can also use the "sql_error_and_log" extended events session to view the captured errors. This will allow you to see information about successful and unsuccessful attempts to execute SQL scripts via an injection attack using Extended Events. You can start this session by running the following command:

sql_error_and_log

To make sure your Extended Events sessions are active, you should run the following command:

getevent, which will display all currently active sessions.

You can use Extended Events to help protect your web application from SQL injection attacks by configuring an event handler for the "SqlException" event. When this event is triggered, it indicates that a successful or unsuccessful attempt at executing SQL commands using SQL injection was made.

After configuring an event handler for "SqlException," you can use it to view captured errors by running the following command:

sql_error_and_log

You can also monitor all of your Extended Events sessions using the "getevent" command. This will allow you to see information about successful and unsuccessful attempts to execute SQL scripts via an injection attack.

You should also configure a WAF to help protect your web application from SQL injection attacks by blocking requests that contain malicious input. However, it is essential to remember that you should not rely on firewalls alone for protection against SQL injection attacks since they can still be evaded, so you should use other security measures, such as input validation, to help keep your site safe.

Suppose you are using Microsoft IIS 8 or higher. In that case, another option is to use the "URL Rewrite" extension, which allows you to block specific HTTP requests based on regular expressions or parameters included in those requests.

To avoid SQL injection attacks, you should always use parameterized queries instead of concatenated queries when passing user input as a parameter to select statements. It would be best to validate any input that your application will use before it is given as a parameter to a SQL statement. It would be best if you never created a dynamic above SQL statement based on input from users since this makes your code vulnerable to a SQL injection attack. Furthermore, it would be best to code all stored procedures with the principle of least privilege in mind, so they only access tables and data for which they have been granted explicit access privileges. Finally, if possible, you should run your database servers and web servers on separate hardware, so your database server isn't exposed to requests from malicious users.

Simulation of SQL Injection attacks with sqlmap

SQL Injection attacks can also be simulated using the sqlmap tool. The following command will launch a SQL injection attack against a target web application:

sqlmap -u http://www.victim.com/search.asp?q= --technique=1

This command will use the "union select" technique to inject a SQL script into the "q" parameter of the "search. asp" page. The output of this attack will be stored in the "sqlmap.log" file.

You can also use sqlmap to exploit vulnerabilities in web applications. The following command will launch an attack against a target web application and attempt to exploit any vulnerabilities that are:

sqlmap -u http://www.victim.com/search.asp?q= --technique=2

This command will use the "injection" technique to exploit any vulnerabilities that are found in the "q" parameter of the "search. asp" page. The output of this attack will be stored in the "sqlmap.log" file.

You can also use sqlmap to enumerate information about a target web application by running the following command:

sqlmap -u http://www.victim.com/search.asp?q= --technique=3

This command will use the "information_schema" technique to enumerate information about the tables and columns available in the "information_schema" database. The output of this attack will be stored in the "sqlmap.log" file.

You can also use sqlmap to dump the contents of a database by running the following command:

sqlmap -u http://www.victim.com/search.asp?q= --dump

This command will dump the contents of the "information_schema" database into a file named "dump.txt." In addition, the output of this attack will be stored in the "sqlmap.log" file.

You can also use sqlmap to run arbitrary SQL commands by running the following command:

sqlmap -u http://www.victim.com/search.asp?q= --batch

This command will run a series of SQL commands against the "information_schema" database. The output of this attack will be stored in the "sqlmap.log" file.

By default, sqlmap will only try to exploit vulnerabilities found in the "q" parameter of the target web application. However, you can also use sqlmap to probe for other types of vulnerabilities by running the following command:

sqlmap -u http://www.victim.com/search.asp?q= --technique=4

This command will use the "blind_query" technique to probe for vulnerabilities caused by errors in SQL statements. The output of this attack will be stored in the "sqlmap.log" file.

You can also use sqlmap to exploit vulnerabilities in web applications by running the following command:

sqlmap -u http://www.victim.com/search.asp?q= --technique=5

This command will use the "time-based_injection" technique to exploit vulnerabilities caused by errors in SQL statements. The output of this attack will be stored in the "sqlmap.log" file.

By default, sqlmap will only try to exploit vulnerabilities found in the "q" parameter of the target web application. However, you can also use sqlmap to probe for other types of vulnerabilities by running the following command:

sqlmap -u http://www.victim.com/search.asp?q= --technique=6

This command will use the "error-based" technique to probe for vulnerabilities caused by errors in SQL statements. The output of this attack will be stored in the "sqlmap.log" file.

You can also use sqlmap to exploit vulnerabilities in web applications by running the following command:

sqlmap -u http://www.victim.com/search.asp?q= --technique=7

This command will use the "injection_oracle_common_name" technique to exploit vulnerabilities caused by errors in SQL statements. The output of this attack will be stored in the "sqlmap.log."

There are too many options in sqlmap to fit into one post, so that I will continue this series of posts with additional features in future posts.

What kind of errors do we need to detect

They need to be errors inserted into the SQL statement due to user-controlled data types. For example, if the web application is expecting an integer value, but instead you give it a string, that would be flagged as an error. However, if there was no error in your request, then sqlmap will not exploit this vulnerability since no error occurred. In this case, the residual operation is due to an implicit conversion or incorrect syntax; however, this isn't indicated in the query plan. However, that doesn't mean that the site is not vulnerable to SQL injection attacks because malicious requests can still be made without these errors occurring.

What kind of vulnerabilities do we need to detect?

The only type of vulnerability detected by sqlmap is SQL injection vulnerabilities. The techniques used by sqlmap are explicitly designed for detecting SQL injections and will adequately handle nested queries, union operators, and other advanced features. So if your web application is vulnerable to SQL injection attacks, then sqlmap will be able to exploit it.

What is the difference between the "attack" and "exploit" options?

The "attack" option is used to run a series of tests against the target web application to find vulnerabilities. The "exploit" option is used to exploit vulnerabilities found by the "attack" option. So, if you use the "attack" option and find a vulnerability, you can use the "exploit" option to exploit that vulnerability.

Risk factors

The main risk factor when using sqlmap is that you could accidentally exploit a vulnerability in the target web application and cause it to crash. This could potentially result in the loss of data, or even worse, an attacker could take control of the site. So please be careful when using sqlmap and always test it on a non-production environment first.

Forms of injection

Sqlmap will detect and exploit the following types of SQL injections:

1. Boolean-based blind SQL injection 2. Error-based SQLI 3. Time-based blind SQLI 4. Union query-based SQLI 5. Inference-based blind 6. Time delay inference based blind 7. Out of band inference based 8. Error inferencing found 9. Boolean fuzzing 10. Negative test 11. Performance-oriented 12. Comment 13. Brute force 14. Smacking 15. Customized injected code 16. Bypassing login 17. Bypassing CSRF protection 18. Bypassing browser's XSS filter 19. Cookie stealing 20. HttpOnly cookie stealing 21 .. SESSION HIJACKING 22. Session cloning 23. And many others...

Conclusion

I hope that this post gave you a better understanding of sqlmap and how it can be used to automate detecting and exploit SQL injection vulnerabilities in web applications. Sqlmap is a potent tool. However, please remember not to use it on production systems because you could cause them to crash. Additionally, be very careful when using this software because you may accidentally exploit web applications without meaning to. Finally, remember that speed is everything when scanning for vulnerabilities with sqlmap so be patient when the scan is running.

Checking on the errors made by an attacker

One of the most important aspects of web application database security is properly detecting and investigating errors and SQL injection flaws that an attacker makes. These errors can provide valuable insights into the methods that an attacker uses to exploit your site.

In this post, we will look at how to use sqlmap's "log" option to view a log file that contains a record of all the errors made during the scanning process. This can be very helpful in determining what type of vulnerabilities an attacker is attempting to exploit.

The "log" option can be used with either the "attack" or "exploit" options. When used with the "attack" option, sqlmap will log the errors found during the scanning process. When used with the "exploit" option, sqlmap will log the mistakes made when exploiting a vulnerability.

The "log" option can also be used with the "tables" and "columns" options to view a list of all the tables and columns that were found during the scanning process. This can help determine which tables and columns an attacker is targeting.

Types of SQL Injection Attacks

SQL injection is an attack used to manipulate or retrieve information from a web application by injecting SQL commands into the data input. The term was introduced by Chris Anley, creator of the first available automated SQL injection tool, Havij (the name comes from an Arabic root that means "to take by force").

This type of attack aims to reconstruct one or more pieces of data stored in a back-end database management system; the result may be leaked information, altered information, or arbitrary code execution on the underlying operating system.

There are several different types of SQL injection attacks:

1. Boolean-based blind SQLi - This attack uses encryption to send encoded queries and determine if specific rows have been modified by performing boolean operations on the encryption response. It is called blind because the attacker does not see how the application responds to the injected queries.

2. error-based SQLi - This attack will inject code in an attempt to force the web application into generating an error message that will provide information about its internal structure or other data it may contain. An example of this type of injection may be entering a single quote ('), which may cause MySQL to close a connection unexpectedly due to unbalanced quotation marks, returning a generic error message regarding invalid connections.

3. Time-based SQLi - This attack sends timed queries to exploit application time-dependency bugs, such as race conditions. It is very similar in practice, if not a concept to security through obscurity, but with the goal being to enumerate valid usernames rather than hidden content.

4. Union-based SQLi – This attack takes advantage of the UNION SQL operator to combine results from two or more queries and return them as a single result set, which may disclose information such as the existence of specific database tables and their columns. This type of attack is similar to SQL injection vulnerabilities that use subqueries.

5. Error-based union - Similar to error-based SQLi, this attack will inject code into an application intended to generate an error message (connection timeout, server error, etc.) The difference between this variant and other types is that it uses the UNION statement to select potential attacks on two tablets simultaneously.

6. Gaining shell access with SQLi - This attack is used to exploit vulnerabilities that allow an attacker to execute system commands on the target server. This can be used to gain access to sensitive data, install backdoors, and so on.

7. Injection into user input - This type of attack is less sophisticated than some other types listed here. Still, it can be very effective if the application does not properly sanitize user input. An attacker will simply inject SQL commands into input fields to execute them without any checks or filters being performed by the application.

8. Blind injection into user input is similar to boolean-based blind SQLi but uses different attack vectors to extract data.

SQLi Prevention Measures

The following measures can be taken to prevent SQL injection attacks. First, they should avoid using user input in building SQL queries and escape strings before passing them to SQL (obviously, this is twice as secure but also more difficult). Some other recommendations include:

• Use stored procedures for database access instead of dynamic SQL. The idea is that only trusted users should be allowed to install or write active code on the server; all interaction with databases should be performed through pre-sanitized (and usually parameterized) functions written by system administrators (or made available by third-party providers). Stored procedures are often shared among users, so they must always manually validate their inputs to avoid security exploits.

• Use an ORM (object-relational mapping) tool instead of raw SQL statements. The idea is that such tools will sanitize data and protect them from injection attacks. This, too, provides a level of validation by the ORM engine implemented by the product. However, using them does not guarantee that you are protected against injection attacks, so they should always be used responsibly and adequately validated on all inputs.

9: NoSQL injection - NoSQL technologies use a range of query languages and data formatting techniques that allow developers to rapidly build scalable applications while avoiding many limitations and complexity in relational databases. However, some implementations omit critical checks on user input, leaving the system exposed to SQL injection attacks.

10. Blind NoSQL injection is similar to string-based blind SQLi but uses different attack vectors to extract data. It is not limited by the presence or absence of quotes around user input, hence its name.

11: XML external entity (XXE) injection - An XXE attack targets many applications that use XML parsers to process user-supplied input containing an entity declaration. Some are simple denial-of-service attacks, whereas others allow arbitrary command execution on the server running the application that's being attacked. When processing an XXE payload, some parsers will read files from disk or launch other network requests, depending on how they have been configured what parsing options they support.

Prevention Measures

Some measures can be taken to prevent XXE attacks, including the following:

• Sanitize input data before passing it to XML parsers.

• Validate all user input against a whitelist of allowable values.

• Use an XML parser that does not allow entity declarations within input data.

12. SSRF (server-side request forgery) - A SSRF attack exploits vulnerabilities in web applications that allow an attacker to send requests from the server to other internal or external systems. This can be used to access sensitive information, launch attacks on other systems, and so on.

13. Injection into URL parameters - This type of attack is less sophisticated than some of the other types listed here but can be as effective in compromising an application. By injecting malicious code into the URL parameters of a web application, an attacker can gain access to sensitive data or execute arbitrary commands on the server.

Prevention Measures

The following are some measures that can be taken to prevent injection attacks into URL parameters:

• Sanitize input data before passing it to web applications.

• Validate all user input against a whitelist of allowable values.

14. Reflection injection - A reflection injection attack occurs when an attacker can inject malicious code into a target system by abusing features that allow objects to be created and methods to be called dynamically at run time. This type of attack is often used to exploit vulnerabilities in Java and .NET applications, but it can also be used in web and mobile application development.

15: LDAP injection - LDAP injection allows an attacker to exploit a vulnerability in an application using LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) data for user authentication and/or authorization purposes. An attacker can use this vulnerability to access sensitive information stored on the back-end systems or execute arbitrary commands on the server running the affected application.

Prevention Measures

• Sanitize input data before passing it to LDAP calls.

• Use bind requests instead of static values when possible. Bind requests let you define your authentication method by supplying a bind request string that specifies how a user should authenticate themselves with a directory service.

• Use the unique credentials of a user to authenticate with back-end systems. If possible, attempt to avoid using usernames and passwords as much as possible by implementing alternative authentication methods such as single sign-on (SSO).

16: XML injection - An attacker can exploit this vulnerability if an application builds and executes an XML document dynamically based on untrusted data provided by users. XML injection is generally carried out by injecting malicious code into parameters that define an "untrusted" data source. This lets attackers alter the structure of the resulting XML document arbitrarily so long as it contains elements coming from an untrusted source. The injected code can overwrite the entire original document, causing severe damage and opening up new security holes.

Prevention Measures

The following are some measures that can be taken to prevent XML injection attacks:

• Sanitize input data before passing it to XML parsers.

• Validate all user input against a whitelist of allowable values.

• Use an XML parser that does not allow entity declarations within input data.

17. Security misconfiguration - This is the most common type of vulnerability found in web applications. A security misconfiguration occurs when an application is configured in such a way that allows unauthorized access to sensitive data or systems. This can include insecure default configurations, unsecured servers and applications, and passwords stored in plaintext.

Prevention

The following are some measures that can be taken to prevent security misconfiguration vulnerabilities:

• Use strong passwords and change them regularly.

• Harden servers and applications by disabling unnecessary features and services.

• Protect sensitive data by encrypting it when possible.

• Restrict access to administrative functions only to authorized personnel.

18: Cross-site scripting (XSS) - A cross-site scripting attack is a vulnerability that allows an attacker to inject malicious code into a web page, resulting in the execution of the code by unsuspecting users who visit the page. This type of attack can be used to steal user credentials, launch phishing attacks, or inject malware into the victim's system.

Prevention Measures The following are some measures that can be taken to prevent cross-site scripting attacks:

• Sanitize input data before passing it to HTML and JavaScript code.

• Use an HTML sanitizer to strip out potentially dangerous tags and attributes from user input.

• Validate all user input against a whitelist of allowable values.

• Use an XSS filter to help detect and mitigate attacks.

19: Insecure direct object references - This type of vulnerability occurs when an application allows unauthorized access to sensitive data by referencing objects in a way that does not adequately protect them. Attackers can exploit this vulnerability by accessing objects that should not be accessible, such as files and directories outside the webroot or database tables with sensitive information.

Prevention Measures The following are some measures that can be taken to prevent insecure direct object reference vulnerabilities:

• Protect all objects from unauthorized access using a whitelist of allowable characters for field names and values.

20: Security misconfiguration - This vulnerability occurs when an application is not securely configured, allowing attackers to bypass essential security controls.

Prevention Measures The following are some measures that can be taken to prevent security misconfiguration vulnerabilities:

• Harden servers and applications by disabling unnecessary features and services.

• Use strong passwords and change them regularly.

• Restrict access to administrative functions only to authorized personnel.

21: Insecure cryptographic storage - Some web applications store sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, or credit card details in plaintext. When this information is compromised, it can be used to perform various malicious actions such as account hijacking or conducting fraudulent transactions.

Prevention Measures The following are some measures that can be taken to prevent insecure cryptographic storage vulnerabilities:

• Use strong types of encryption for sensitive data when possible (e.g., not using MD5 in cryptography).

22: Cross-site request forgery - This type of vulnerability allows attackers to use the credentials of authorized users without their knowledge, potentially allowing them to perform unauthorized administrative actions.

Prevention Measures The following are some measures that can be taken to prevent cross-site request forgery vulnerabilities:

• Enable mutual authentication with clients whenever possible (for example, by requiring the use of a session ID or cryptographic token).

• Use strong passwords and change them regularly.

• Restrict access to administrative functions only to authorized personnel.

23: Insufficient logging and monitoring - This vulnerability occurs when an application does not track or log enough information about user activity, making it difficult to determine who is responsible for malicious or unauthorized actions.

Prevention Measures The following are some measures that can be taken to prevent insufficient logging and monitoring vulnerabilities:

• Log all user activity, including failed login attempts.

• Track the source IP address of all requests.

• Store audit logs for a minimum of one year.

24: Using components with known vulnerabilities - Many web applications use third-party components such as libraries and frameworks, which can be vulnerable to attack if not properly secured.

Prevention Measures The following are some measures that can be taken to prevent using components with known vulnerabilities:

• Use only well-known, reputable components from authorized sources.

• Keep all components up to date with the latest security patches.

25: Insufficient authentication and session management - This vulnerability occurs when an application does not properly authenticate users or track their sessions, allowing attackers to gain access without proper authorization.

Prevention Measures The following are some measures that can be taken to prevent insufficient authentication and session management vulnerabilities:

• Require strong passwords and change them regularly.

• Use multi-factor authentication whenever possible.

• Track user sessions and log off users when they have finished using the application.

26: Insufficient security controls - This vulnerability occurs when an application does not have enough security controls in place, which can allow attackers to bypass necessary security measures.

Prevention Measures The following are some measures that can be taken to prevent insufficient security controls vulnerabilities:

• Harden servers and applications by disabling unnecessary features and services.

• Use strong passwords and change them regularly.

• Restrict access to administrative functions only to authorized personnel.

27: Cross-site scripting - This vulnerability allows attackers to inject malicious code into webpages, which can then be executed by unsuspecting users who visit the page.

Prevention Measures The following are some measures that can be taken to prevent cross-site scripting vulnerabilities:

• Use strong input validation to check all user input for potentially malicious code.

• Output all user data in a safe format, such as HTML or JavaScript.

• Use a web application firewall (WAF) to block malicious inputs from reaching the application.

28: Broken authentication and session management - This vulnerability occurs when an application does not correctly manage authentication and session information, allowing attackers to gain access without proper authorization.

Prevention Measures The following are some measures that can be taken to prevent broken authentication and session management vulnerabilities:

• Store authentication and session information in encrypted form.

• Use random session IDs to prevent attackers from guessing valid session IDs.

• Terminate sessions after a certain period of inactivity.

• Use multi-factor authentication whenever possible.

29: Security misconfiguration - This vulnerability occurs when developers and administrators do not follow recommended security procedures, allowing attackers to gain access to unauthorized areas or functions within the application.

Prevention Measures The following are some measures that can be taken to prevent security misconfiguration vulnerabilities:

• Ensure all development and server environments adhere to server configuration and operating system hardening policies.

• Ensure all applications use current versions of secure libraries and components.

30: Sensitive data sent via an unencrypted channel - An attacker may intercept requests containing sensitive information such as passwords and credit card numbers if transmitted through an unencrypted channel (HTTP).

Prevention Measures The following are some measures that can be taken to prevent sensitive data sent via an unencrypted channel vulnerability:

• Use HTTPS instead of HTTP whenever possible.

• Use a secure protocol such as SSL or TLS to encrypt all web traffic.

Mitigation Strategies

In addition to the prevention measures listed above, the following are some mitigation strategies that can be used to help protect applications from attacks:

1. Use a WAF: A web application firewall (WAF) is a type of security appliance that monitors and filters all inbound and outbound traffic to web applications. It can help protect applications from many common attacks, including SQL injection, cross-site scripting, and buffer overflows.

2. Restrict access to authorized users: Restricting access to authorized users can help prevent attackers from gaining access to sensitive data and functions within an application.

3. Harden servers and applications: Hardening servers and applications by disabling unnecessary features and services can help reduce the number of vulnerabilities that may be present in the environment.

4. Use strong passwords: Using strong passwords and changing them regularly can help protect against attackers who may try to guess passwords or use brute-force methods to gain access to applications.

5. Patch systems regularly: Keeping systems up-to-date with the latest patches can help protect against vulnerabilities that may be present in the environment.

6. Educate users on phishing attacks: Teaching users how to identify and avoid phishing attacks can help reduce the number of potential victims who may fall for such scams.

7. Use a scanning tool: A scanning tool can help identify vulnerabilities in web applications, which can then be fixed before an attacker has a chance to exploit them.

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