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Over many years industry standards development organizations and other industry associations have developed and collaborated to align systems engineering (SE) and software engineering standards. The objective is to introduce an established set of standards in the engineering community that can be easily used in both disciplines because of the divergent use of common terminology and concepts.
Web analytics is the measurement and analysis of data to understand user behaviour across web pages. Businesses use web analytics platforms to measure and benchmark site performance and look at key performance indicators that drive their business, such as purchase conversion rate.
Typically, web analytics deployment insights include all operations to generate reports and recommendations for end-users. Many companies have separate web analytics implementations across several digital properties. Analytics data helps to improve and eliminate flaws to reach higher goals. Accurate data is the basis of good web analytics. You will need to invest some development resources to deploy an analytics tool successfully.
Release Management and Change Management
Release management and change management activities are generally handled identically, regardless of whether a piece of software or a complex system is being developed. Release management is the process for planning, development, testing, and delivery of a business product, service, or project. Change Management tracks changes to an established baseline during Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) phases such as requirements definition, design engineering, and implementation. The change management process ensures that any proposed changes to deliverables made throughout the SDLC result in consistent products/services/projects at all times.
Although release management has been around for some time, it has only been applied recently to systems programs where NASA-JSC Center Director Mr. Frank Sietzen coined that term in 1992 after he integrated software and hardware into a single release to perform complex space missions.
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Human & Organizational Factors
Humans and their organizations are fundamental to the success of any IT implementation; therefore, human and organizational factors should be included in the definition of User Acceptance Testing (UAT) and system acceptance testing (SAT). The objective is to test all aspects of an organization's business processes and procedures before implementation.
The test measures effectiveness, efficiency, completeness, and robustness of these processes through actual use by end-users who will operate them after deployment. This way, the final product can be deployed with complete confidence it will work for its intended purpose without adversely impacting other systems or changing business rules that must remain intact for compliance reasons.
For example, A healthcare provider would only accept a new software application if it could interface with any medical device, operating system, mobile phone and meet Meaningful Use criteria.
The data collection process can seem tricky, but the more accurate data, the better. Customer experience data will allow you to gain the insights you need in analytics to deploy a network for your site and get solutions for your analytics problems.
Comparison of Systems Engineering Standards
The Systems Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK) has been established to provide a set of widely used definitions describing the systems engineering process, products, and supporting methods. It is intended to be used for instructional purposes, providing an organized framework for communicating information about what systems engineers do. The SWEBOK is maintained by the International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE).
Surprisingly enough, there are no standards that specifically define software development standards. This means that developers must rely on their own experience or look through multiple documents to find significant nuggets that can be reused in future projects. There are also many good books available that address various aspects of software management, but they too require some investigation before use.
However, the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) provides the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), which is a set of guidelines that can be adapted to any development environment. The objective is to provide organizations with an unbiased evaluation tool and model for continuous process improvement.
The CMMI helps companies increase their effectiveness and efficiency by teaching them how to: develop products the first time, perform configuration management, reduce project failure rates, improve productivity and quality, ensure consistency throughout all projects, and enhance staff skills.
CMMI models are structured around five levels (1-5), providing defined core practices at each station along with defined target practices grouped into specific process areas. For example, it's expected that organizations at Level 3 will have processes that meet core practices, such as formally documenting processes. However, achieving Level 3 does not mean all target practices are met; only those relevant to the organization's needs are addressed. All CMMI models follow a five-level progression (1-5) that defines the maturity of an organization's processes and provides guidance for moving to higher maturity levels. Unfortunately, this model has yet to be widely adopted by the information technology community.
Once all the theoretical aspects of a project have been planned and formalized, then practical considerations need to be taken into account. Typically this is done by creating a process map that clearly defines major processes and how they interrelate with one another to: identify opportunities for automating tasks, reducing time to market, improving quality of products, maximizing information sharing between partners/teams/employees, etc.
Workflow software can also assist organizations by mapping business processes on screen. Once established, these saved sequences are accessible via mouse-click or menu selection making them easy to rerun at any time. This saves significant amounts of time because IT managers do not have to manually recreate each process flow during testing simply because no documentation was available.
The other benefit is the amount of time that can be saved by having accurate and up-to-date documentation available at all times. This reduces the risk of information getting lost, misdirected, or out-of-date, as well as allows users to cut and paste sections into documents rather than recreating them from scratch.
Although this sounds like a lot of overhead, it's pretty efficient once put in place, so organizations should implement these practices as soon as possible. Finally, it ensures high-quality data because no manual steps are involved after the initial set up, so there's very little room for error unless a process step fails.
Release Management Best Practices
Release Management is the art of making sure that all product components are properly planned, built, integrated, tested, and released at the right time. This sounds simple enough, but many companies have difficulty nailing down a solid release schedule because they can't effectively define their development process or map project steps to a calendar.
Be aware! The Scrum framework does not provide a delivery date for projects since it allows for changing requirements, customer feedback/advice, and new feature requests from management. In addition, each development team may be working on multiple products, so it's impossible to predict precisely when an entire project will be complete under this methodology.
Web analytics data
Google Tag Manager is a tag management system (TMS) that allows you to quickly and easily update measurement codes and related code fragments collectively known as tags on your website or mobile app. Get access to your configured solution options and trends in analyzing sites. Data collected this way will help you in processing your web analytics. This is a helpful instrument to increase your traffic event and get leading links to your sites. Data usually shows that user behaviour in your web analytics is essential in the first place. Read trends in web analytics will allow you to search and interact with needed servers.
To account for these factors, the IBM Rational Software Group recommends selecting product priorities based on business value and then creating a rough "idea" schedule that all stakeholders agree upon. This approach typically results in an initial product delivery date one to two months after the start of the project, along with timeline checkpoints every four weeks for significant changes and eight weeks for minor ones.
The first checkpoint is essential because this is where functional requirements are drafted, quality assurance plans are determined, maintenance tasks are scheduled, testing begins, documentation can be updated, and development teams can begin coding. Next comes integration which ensures each module works properly before moving on to testing, which validates each new feature within its proper context. Following this step comes stabilization, where bugs or issues found during the test are addressed before finalization. At this point, the entire project may be delivered to either internal or external customers depending on the importance and complexity of the project.
A General Release Management Checklist
Company leaders should always keep one point in mind: if it's not written down, it doesn't exist. For this reason, we recommend creating a release management checklist as soon as possible to ensure that no major steps are missed by either IT staff or development teams during the initial launch of a new product. This can be done by organizing items into categories such as:
Project Planning Outline – describes goals, objectives, assumptions, constraints, etc. for each phase;
Work Breakdown Structure – provides a detailed breakdown of tasks and increments associated with each product increment;
Quality Assurance Plan – identifies testing procedures and schedules based on risk assessment;
Project Deployment Plan – provides a high-level overview of the overall IT infrastructure required to support new features and functionality.
Baldrige Excellence Framework
The Baldrige Excellence Framework is a set of criteria that helps organizations transform their business operations into ones that promote quality, continuous improvement, and innovation. A conceptual framework in nature, it's comprised of four interrelated elements:
Strategy - plans and activities to complete the vision;
Process Management - sets forth five essential areas for success, including leadership engagement, customer focus, operational effectiveness, metrics-based performance management, and process excellence;
Organization - leverages cross-functional teams where necessary along with skilled managers who understand the importance of people factor within an operation;
Results - defines 15 critical results that must be achieved through strong execution against a clear key organizational performance driver (KOPDs) which are tied directly to senior leadership objectives.
At first glance, the broad nature of this framework might make it seem like a waste of time for IT professionals who are primarily focused on projects that launch new products. However, if leaders want to transform their organization into an efficient and effective one, this is where they should begin. For instance, organizations can use the strategy element as a starting point by creating business cases that prove how new software or components will improve productivity and ultimately increase revenue through increased customer engagement. Next comes the process management section to analyze current processes associated with these KOPDs before determining which steps can be improved through automation within IT operations. This task falls under both the project planning outlay and the quality assurance plan since these features must work properly before being tested and validated. With the organization element, organizations can begin to make improvements surrounding talent management by assessing current talent pools and developing the best fit strategy for new hires who possess the necessary skill sets needed to expand or improve existing operations. The results section provides a roadmap for improvement as long as data is being collected from each initiative that falls under this framework. At the end of the day, key organizational performance drivers are what IT leaders should focus on if they want to increase efficiency within their organization.
As demonstrated, general release management requires highly specific processes that include project planning, deployment planning, integration testing, quality assurance testing, stabilization testing, and finalization steps among others. From an overall perspective, however – it's simply a chain-of-command where one set of experts develops thorough processes for completing new features and functionality with little to no error while another set of experts oversees these operations to ensure the highest level of quality.
What is Software Release Management
Software release management is an IT discipline that ensures the timely delivery of high-quality software products to various stakeholders, including clients, customers, and other business partners. These stakeholders may be located inside or outside an organization's four walls. They rely on software applications to complete highly complex tasks which they must perform promptly to achieve their full benefit from this software application. Thus, it is neither feasible nor acceptable for any company to launch faulty software solutions into the internal or external marketplace.
What is the difference between software release management and project management?
While these two disciplines are closely related, they remain distinct from one another in several ways:
Software Release Management vs. Project Management: Software release management focuses on delivering high-quality applications. The process takes into account the application's functionalities as well as its non-functional requirements such as performance, scalability, usability, and security among others. On the other hand, project management focuses on actually designing and developing an application until it's released into production environments where colleagues can begin to use it for various purposes (e.g., billing customers, handling customer complaints, etc.). While both require extensive planning efforts to track and communicate project milestones and deadlines, the main difference is that release management addresses the quality of an application at all stages throughout its lifecycle – from pre-production to production and everything in between.
Project Management: Project managers typically don't implement new features or functionality. They focus more on designing and developing software applications. Their process starts by working with IT teams to determine what kind of application needs to be developed (and for which particular purposes) before creating a high-level design document that details such elements as basic logic flows, system architecture, and user interface designs among other things. Once this design document is approved by all stakeholders, team members proceed to create detailed specifications documents which map out virtually every single feature and functionality associated with the project including usage scenarios, functional requirements, and application architecture. After this step is completed, developers begin to write code which they continue doing until the project's final deadline approaches and/or milestones are met, followed by several more quality assurance tests (e.g., unit testing) before handing off their work to IT operations teams for deployment purposes.
Software Release Management: Software release management addresses the quality of an application throughout all stages of its lifecycle – from pre-production to production and everything in between. It focuses on ensuring that all stakeholders receive high-quality releases that meet their needs fully without error or issue whatsoever. It begins with a planning phase where release managers:
Establish processes and procedures that address every area of software release management, including release plans, software quality management plans, and change control processes.
Define a detailed process that allows the generation of accurate project estimation data, which helps determine how much time it will take to complete a given project from beginning to end. This process typically includes gathering input from key stakeholders across the organization and performing application impact analysis before determining an optimal production schedule for deployment purposes.
Ensure that business requirements are communicated between all team members regularly – along with their associated priorities – throughout each stage of development to avoid any surprises or reworks down the road. Once this step is completed, development teams can begin either by working off requirements documentation by business analysts or by creating their own, depending on the size and complexity of the project. Since this document will typically reflect all functional, non-functional, and technical requirements for developing or upgrading an application, developers should use it as their guiding light throughout development until completion.
Define a software testing strategy that supports project stakeholders by addressing critical business, performance, security, and compliance risks actively associated with any given application release before final deployment into production environments. On the one hand, these tests can be considered high-level quality assurance (QA) tests used primarily to confirm that an application is functioning correctly before promotion into production. While these kinds of tests tend to take place solely in pre-production environments, other types involve clients performing tasks using target applications within pre-production before deploying them into production for business use. Testing in the deployment environment is considered a much more stringent process because it involves "real-world" usage, which may cause problems with how applications function within this space.
Plan, develop and implement continuous integration practices that help reduce potential defects between each new application release throughout its entire lifecycle - from pre-production to production. Of course, these quality data can vary depending on the project's size and complexity, but they will typically focus on ensuring that functional, non-functional, and technical requirements are met without any major issues or errors whatsoever. Once each of these steps is completed, software developers can begin writing code which they continue doing until final deadlines approach or milestones are met; after this happens, release managers can begin the process of releasing new applications into production.
Release Management Techniques for Process Improvements
To optimize the production release process, all stakeholders involved in this process must understand what is going on with regards to its current status at any given point in time. While there are a number of these processes available on the market today, some of them focus more on software testing than others while some offer a wide variety of features for helping organizations release new applications into pre-production and/or production environments without any major issues or defects whatsoever. Regardless, here are three unique examples that can be used throughout each release lifecycle:
Pre-Production Testing. As mentioned earlier, non-functional testing often takes place within non-production environments, but it does not mean that this type of testing should only occur in this space. It is a good idea to include clients in the fun of pre-production testing to potentially identify any significant issues before they have a chance to affect the overall quality of the production release. This way, stakeholders will be able to pinpoint these types of problems and remove them from running in production without affecting the user experience.
Production Testing with Client Involvement. Similar to how non-functional testing often takes place within pre-production environments, it may also make sense for organizations to include clients in on the fun by having them test out specific applications within the production environment before final deployment and use by end-users. By doing this, teams will be able to ensure that their finished product is meeting the needs of its target market and satisfying them as well.
Automated Release with Client Involvement. This final step may be considered to be both practical and effective because it involves fully automated releases with client involvement. In other words, developers will include business stakeholders in on the fun by having them test out software features before release into production; however, this time, they will also include functional and performance tests for ensuring that new applications are performing optimally within a production environment (which provides for extreme loads). While this can be an expensive process due to how often organizations may need to update their applications, the result is worth it: providing businesses with high-quality products ready for use without any major or minor errors whatsoever.
The objective of alignment
The objective of a release management process is to align stakeholders towards sharing a common goal for providing high-quality software which is flawless and without any significant issues. By each person clearly understanding their role within this process and what will be expected from them at specific points in time, organizations can automate the entire process to ensure that it runs as smoothly as possible from start to finish.
Metrics should be used throughout testing procedures to ensure that everything is going according to plan. For instance, if testing teams find several defects during pre-production, they should notify development teams to address these problems before final deployments take place. Similarly, production managers should have an established communication channel with their clients to communicate issues clearly and concisely.
Business managers should also be involved in non-functional testing to ensure that their released software meets the needs of the target market and how to increase revenue from existing products by adding new features or eliminating bugs that prevent end-users from taking advantage of certain aspects within each system. In other words, businesses will need to align with business stakeholders to make sure that they are both on the same page when it comes to pre-production and production stages.
How you choose to test your software will largely determine an application's outcome and overall success over time; therefore, it just makes sense that organizations implement a process that works best for specific needs. For example, highly B2C companies may want to consider the very first step of pre-production testing while more internal business organizations will likely see advantages of a fully automated process that has been optimized towards prioritizes development, deployment, and release procedures with client involvement for optimizing quality control measures before bug release into production environments.
The outcome of this entire process is that you will have high-quality software releases optimized for providing end-users with exactly what they were looking for without any major issues or setbacks whatsoever. In other words, they'll get their money's worth rather than getting an application that crashes on launch or doesn't work at all.
How can you align your stakeholders?
The best way to align your business stakeholders is to participate in the entire release management process from start to finish. This will provide them with a better understanding of how each stage works as well as what their role is at each point in time.
For example, suppose they are responsible for providing performance evaluations during production. In that case, they'll know that issues need to be addressed quickly so that production managers can minimize the downtime, which usually comes up when users begin complaining about applications not working correctly. Similarly, functional teams should make sure that they meet all of the specific needs about new features or remove bugs about pre-production processes before deployment takes place; there's no room for surprises once the software goes live into production environments.
Importance of high-quality business stakeholders
Having well-constructed and highly aligned business stakeholders in place before, during, and after release management processes will allow for much smoother and comprehensive operations, which is the ultimate goal when it comes to software releases that work right out of the gate. You can't go wrong with having highly-engaged and aligned business stakeholders throughout each stage of your release management process since they'll be able to properly communicate issues so that everyone knows what's going on at all times rather than wondering when specific problems might arise.
Do my stakeholders have to be aligned?
Make sure that you properly align your business stakeholders so that no time is wasted when it comes to ongoing procedures within a release management environment. By allowing them to get involved from start to finish, you'll be less likely to face any major issues or setbacks that could've been avoided altogether; therefore, it just makes sense for organizations to properly align their business stakeholders and provide them with a comprehensive understanding of the entire release management process.
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