The Vision Apis

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In machine-to-machine interaction (HMI-A), screen development can have multiple uses. Implementing a successful plan takes discipline. An image, a sound, and an intuitive experience can vary greatly given modern HMI software. Guidelines, standards, and guides for HMI development are available from ISA ASM ISO / NUREG. This resource describes several design and maintenance options for effective HMI use in remote monitoring and telephone lines.

The Vision Apis - Image Recognition, OpenCV, and Machine Learning

The Vision for Automation (VfA) program provides the opportunity to build on the time-tested principles of ISA95. You can apply ISA automation standards to your industrial process plants using proven technologies like DCSs and PLCs. By using open technology standards like Ethernet IP, you can further enable more automation applications with software tools. This approach will help you create an industrial communication network that is highly scalable and offers increased interoperability across all industrial control devices through open standards such as Modbus, OPC UA, PROFINET, EtherNet/IP & recently CIP Safety.

A new control system

The VfA program provides the opportunity to build on the time-tested principles of ISA95. You can apply ISA automation standards to your process plants using proven technologies like DCSs and PLCs. By using open technology standards like Ethernet IP, you can further enable more automation applications with software tools. This approach will help you create industrial wireless networks that are highly scalable and offers increased interoperability across all industrial control devices through open standards.

We’re here to make sure your business runs smoothly by providing reliable solutions that are easy to implement in any environment. Our team of experts has decades of combined experience in designing efficient systems for our clients so they can focus on their core competencies while we handle everything else! Let us take care of your plant maintenance needs so you don’t have to worry about anything but growing your business!

HMI Design Best Practices

Here are some best practices to consider when creating an HMI screen:

1. Keep the number and size of objects on your screen to a minimum (i.e., the fewer and smaller the better)

2. Organize objects in a logical sequence or pattern

3. Give priority to critical data acquisition elements

4. Test all message types to ensure they perform as expected

5. Select colours that provide maximum contrast for readability

6. Use large font sizes (12 pt.) for headlines, titles, labels, and instructions; use 10 pt., or 11 pt.—no shorter than 9 pt.—for content text running body text; employ consistent fonts across screens; use sans serif fonts whenever possible; keep line-height between 6-12 pt.; keep text margins at least .25 in.

7. Reduce clutter by removing unused or unnecessary features

8. When using colour to convey meaning, make sure the message can be conveyed without it (i.e., if colour is used for emphasis, the same effect may be achieved by changing size)

9. Keep labels far enough away from objects they describe so that their meaning is not lost when viewing other parts of the screen; use a minimum of four scan lines between the label and the object it describes

10. Remove pointers whenever possible; use pointers only when necessary to indicate objects with critical information

11. Disable feature-specific menus until ready to use them; avoid using menus to perform secondary functions such as selecting date/time

12. Keep menus simple; use traditional menu hierarchies; make sure users can navigate through all levels without difficulty; place frequently used functions at the top of the menu (e.g., print screen, save)

13. Display warnings first, followed by errors; show warnings first, followed by alerts

14. Use bright red for shutdown alarms and bright yellow for alerts warning of a problem but not putting a process in danger

15. Provide comprehensive documentation to support your HMI screens design decisions

HMI Common Problems and Solutions

Here are a few common problems with HMI designs and some possible solutions: 

      -   Sensitivity Controls: Make sure sensitivity controls only turn the feature on or off when designing sensitive settings; make sure all sensitivity controls are accompanied by an explanation; label the control with a plus/minus sign and use "+" for on and "-" for off

        -   Color: When using color to convey meaning, make sure the message can be conveyed without it (i.e., if color is used for emphasis, the same effect may be achieved by changing size)

Encoding Information: Encode information when possible (e.g., state changes shown with icons rather than text)

Entry Boxes: Place entry boxes in locations where they minimize the possibility of unintended interactions; avoid placing boxes near objects that could cause confusion or unintentional input when operating them (e.g., do not place entry boxes in front of moving objects); do not provide the same function in multiple entry boxes

Selection Lists: Use selection lists for functions that require users to make choices or when providing a limited number of options; when possible, use the best method to display items (e.g., checkboxes are good for selecting conditionally required features while radio buttons are better for mutually exclusive options)

Dynamic Content: If using dynamic content, ensure it is relevant and accessible to users at any time; minimize delay in accessing dynamic content by keeping polls short, performing them only as frequently as needed, caching data requests in memory whenever possible, etc.; if necessary use progress bars to inform users how long they need to wait until information becomes available

Visible Buttons: Make sure all visible buttons are large enough for easy use; make user product testing is the best way to determine the optimal size for each button

The Vision Apis

Vision is one of the most powerful systems available to humans in supply chain management, and impairments often manifest as problems with vision.  People with impaired vision may be unable to perform basic tasks like reading, driving a car, or walking without assistance.

People with special needs—those who have a disability that makes it difficult or impossible to see certain aspects of a screen image—benefit from good HMI design just as everyone else does. The challenge HMI designers must meet is that people with special needs have unique requirements. In addition to designing an effective graphical user interface for people without special needs, designers must accommodate the needs of people with low vision (e.g., problems seeing text or images or perceiving colour), who make up more than 90 percent of those with impaired vision.

To create an HMI that works well for all users, it is necessary to understand how different disabilities affect a person's ability to see and interpret information on screens. For example, someone who has trouble distinguishing colours may have difficulty distinguishing one part of the screen from another when they are presented in similar colours. This can be mitigated by using contrasting colours for related items—for example, using black text on a white background rather than dark blue text against a fuchsia background.

Many disabilities can affect a person's ability to use an HMI.

Anyone who has experienced problems seeing what is on the screen of their phone, tablet, or computer—even when they are wearing corrective lenses—knows how frustrating it can be when the user interface does not meet their needs. Some users with vision impairments and blindness may need additional help using touchscreens and other displays in environments like industrial controls and medical devices where access to documentation is limited. Furthermore, people who have trouble seeing small text or detecting colour contrast typically also experience problems perceiving distance and depth, which makes tasks like navigating through menus even more difficult.

The following is a list of some common vision-related challenges:

low vision (difficulty seeing any or all of the following: text, images, or colours)

colour blindness (difficulty perceiving colours as expected)

macular degeneration (progressive loss of central vision due to damage to the "macula lutea")

cataracts (clouding of the eye's lens that results in a decrease in visual acuity)

retinopathy of prematurity (abnormal blood vessel growth behind a baby's retina caused by being born prematurely)

astigmatism (irregular curvature of the cornea that causes light rays to focus at different points within the eye and produce blurred vision)

The goal of HMI designers is to ensure their products work well with every potential user. For this to happen, HMI designers must understand how to design effective user interfaces for people with special needs. This requires rethinking the way they think about designing displays and controls.

The following are some tips for creating designs that work well for everyone:

Don't assume that screen readers will be used on every device or in every location where a touch display is deployed—in some cases, voice recognition software can be used instead.

When using standard-size buttons, make sure at least one button's width is greater than its height to allow users who have trouble with depth perception to better target the area they intend to press. Placing large, easy-to-target areas next to small ones helps as well. A cost of being able to generate really small buttons is that they are hard to target—it's very difficult to hit a single pixel. Keep this in mind as you design your touch menus and make sure the most important information is always within easy reach.

Remember colour blindness! Many colour-blind people who can't distinguish red from the green can still detect differences between shades of these colours, so it may be necessary to use a different indicator for each if they must be differentiated by sight alone.

If possible, standardize on a single typeface and size throughout an interface—a consistent look-and-feel makes users more comfortable with using displays and controls. In addition, people with low vision or visual field loss might have difficulty reading text that doesn't fill the entire field of view.

Don't use a system's native status bar as a replacement for other types of indicators—most users will not read or remember information provided in this way. People who rely on screen readers will have to find out what the status bars are saying by trial and error. Indicators should provide clear state changes that do not require an additional explanation from a narrator or an on-screen text label to understand them.

Remember that some people will hold their devices close to their faces, while others may be further away. Adjust your font sizes accordingly. More "elbow room" doesn't hurt either, so make sure menus and controls don't run right up against each other or a screen edge.

Design a user interface for the blind

The primary issue is not that people with disabilities cannot use computers, but rather that those who design computer interfaces do not take into account those people's unique needs and capabilities. The bottom line is that technology should be designed to empower all users, regardless of their abilities or goals.

HMI ( Human-Machine Interface ) designers allow their solutions to be customized as needed by end-users who have special requirements. This process ensures that products work well with every potential user. For this to happen HMI designers must understand how to design effective user interfaces for people with special needs. To create designs that could work well for everyone it is needed to rethink the way how to design. There are some tips for creating designs that work well for everyone.

HMI Design - Key elements:

1. Don't assume that screen readers will be used on every device or in every location where a touch display is deployed—in some cases, voice recognition software can be used instead.

2. When using standard-size buttons, make sure at least one button's width is greater than its height to allow users who have trouble with depth perception to better target the area they intend to press. Placing large, easy-to-target areas next to small ones helps as well. A cost of being able to generate really small buttons is that they are hard to target—it's very difficult to hit a single pixel. Keep this in mind as you design your touch menus and make sure the most important information is always within easy reach.

3. Don't use text-to-speech conversion unless it can be done with very high accuracy. Many people are not familiar with the sound of their voice, so TTS may cause them to think they speak much more slowly or loudly than they do. Furthermore, if the information is conveyed using a voice that doesn't match the user's natural speaking patterns (e.g., too quickly/slowly), delivery will be unpleasant and comprehension will likely suffer as well—the person may even get frustrated and abandon the device completely!

4. When displaying warnings on an interactive display, make sure at least one "soft" control (such as a check box) is available for performing critical tasks without having to hear an audio message or see a visual cue.

The following guidelines are based on the research results of GSMA's Mobile Accessibility Programme (MAP) and will help you ensure that your app is accessible to people with certain disabilities, including those who are deaf or hard of hearing, blind or have low vision, and people with limited dexterity.

By following these guidelines you'll be able to reach more people with your app, increase engagement, reduce support costs and improve customer satisfaction. These guidelines apply equally to all mobile platforms.

People with disabilities have unique needs that are not always met by traditional ways of interacting with machines. A new generation of technologies has emerged in recent years aimed at making it easier for anyone to interact with products through touch-based controls, voice recognition, and display-free interfaces.

These technologies, collectively referred to as 'assistive technology', allow people with disabilities to make use of products in the same way as everyone else. When designing for this group, you mustn't inadvertently create barriers through your app design.

If you follow these guidelines when developing your mobile application, you'll be able to reach more users, increase engagement and reduce support costs.

Some of the recommendations are specific to smartphones or tablets but many can also be applied when designing for other types of devices where input is touch-based. For example, smartwatches will benefit from implementing voice commands instead of requiring touch interactions on a tiny screen. Please note that while some principles apply to all assistive technologies, others are specific to particular types of disabilities.

Requirement 1: Interaction must be possible without vision

People with blindness or low vision may rely on audio announcements and acoustic cues (such as vibration) to indicate the status of some actions, but they will typically use an app by exploring it through touch. Users who cannot see your screen need to be able to navigate easily through your app's screens. This can be achieved by orienting users at each state using audio cues (for example, "Menu", "content", "submenu...").

Your product should provide a method for users to explore content hierarchies and select items from a list—for example, interactive elements such as links and buttons should have text labels. Avoid using solely images to denote interactivity because they benefit only users who can see them, and a screen reader will not recognize these elements as interactive.

Requirement 2: Interaction must be possible without the hearing

People with hearing disabilities need an alternative way of receiving information about the status of actions that take place on the device or in your product. The most common solution is for such apps to provide visual cues along with the audio messages—for example, by displaying each word as it is spoken out loud via text-to-speech (TTS). Note that people with severe forms of vision loss may also have problems seeing alternative textual representations of buttons and other interactive elements within your app's screens - we'll look at this issue in requirement 5.

Unless your app's primary function is to produce speech output (and these are extremely rare), do not use TTS as the only way of conveying information to users. Some people with hearing disabilities may also be unable to hear what the device is saying, so you should always provide additional modes of communication. An alternative would be to include vibration or physical feedback when certain actions are triggered (for example, email notifications).

Requirement 3: Interaction must be possible without touch People who have motor disabilities may rely on voice or motion-based controls to interact with apps and devices. For example, basic tasks like calling someone, navigating through screens, and typing text can all be achieved by issuing voice commands. Apps that rely principally on on-screen controls, such as those requiring text input, may be challenging for some users with motor disabilities. People who have limited dexterity cannot provide the required gestures to interact with their devices, so you should always strive to implement voice-based interactions wherever possible.

Requirement 4: Interaction must be possible without hearing or touch A subset of people with motor disabilities will rely on a combination of inputs to operate a product. For example, a user may require a physical switch that can trigger an action when pressed and activated using voice control via TTS. The switch could also use sound or vibration feedback to indicate the status of actions - for example, by emitting an audible tone when turned on and silent when turned off. In most cases, they'll need to operate both switches and voice to use the app successfully.

Requirement 5: Interaction must be possible without cognition People with cognitive disabilities may require simpler, more intuitive interfaces that provide clear guidance on how to interact with them. For example, apps that lack context or labels can leave such users confused and disoriented even if they're able to explore the screen using touch. Ensure that your app's screens present information in a concise and structured fashion - we'll look at this issue in requirement 9.  

Requirement 6: Interaction must be possible without sight or sound

People who are deaf-blind rely on Braille output and tactile indicators (such as vibration) for screen interaction and will typically use an app by exploring it through touch. If your app relies on audio output as the primary means of conveying information to users, they will not be able to access it.

Requirement 7: Interaction must be possible without motion People with limited mobility benefit from apps that provide a set of predefined options for each screen or action. For example, instead of providing an "accept" and a "cancel" button, offer a pair of clearly labelled OK and Cancel buttons. Users with limited dexterity face certain difficulties when using touch gestures - people who have motor disabilities may also have difficulty holding their hands steady enough to press small UI elements on the screen reliably.

Requirement 8: Interaction must be possible without vision Most apps include text labels for important screens and controls. However, some users with visual disabilities rely on descriptive audio or Braille output instead. Ensure that you provide full accessibility labels for all of your UI elements by using the Accessibility Scanner in Xcode to review them.

Requirement 9: Interaction must be possible without continuous gestures Users who find it difficult to maintain a steady hand may have trouble interacting with apps that require complex multi-finger gestures (such as pinching and zooming). You can make these interactions easier by making them more predictable or giving clear feedback when the interaction is completed successfully.

Requirements 6-9 are where I feel most iOS apps fall short, but thankfully Apple's developer documentation does an excellent job of explaining how to improve this aspect of accessibility. We'll look at some specific examples of how to do this in the next section.

HMI Systems - Choosing the Right HMI Hardware for Your Application

It should be mentioned that users who rely on assistive technologies (such as voice-to-text) to interact with Apple's iOS platform may not benefit from VoiceOver. If your app is intended for use by a non-VoiceOver user, you can follow the same best practices above without worrying about how it will affect accessibility. Otherwise, ensure that your app provides a well-defined means of interacting with assistive technology devices via Bluetooth or USB protocols.

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