Wearable Sensors

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The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of digital infrastructure monitoring remote patient care. As viral tests and vaccines continue to be slow, wearable sensors may help identify and prevent disease. Although it is possible to correlate physiological data with everyday life and individual performance, translations such as COVID-19 are still necessary.

Do you have a health condition that requires regular monitoring?

Wearable sensors can help you do just that! They are noninvasive and comfortable for patients, making them ideal for regular use. In addition, they have many other applications in the medical world, such as teleconsultation or monitoring devices that can alert doctors or caregivers about changes in patients' vital signs from remote locations. Numerous possibilities could harness wearable sensor technology begin to turn into a valuable device for people with health conditions who need to monitor themselves regularly.

Our research has shown that many companies already use environmental sensors in their medical products. With Geolance, you can get the best quality product possible. We will work with you to make sure you receive a wearable resistive strain sensor that meets your specific needs and requirements. Purchase a Geolance today on our website!

Key enabling technologies

Key enabling technologies in fabricating robust mechanical sensors and global digital infrastructures are in infancy. For example, continuous monitoring wirelessly requires new architectures to facilitate intelligent data transfer between devices and infrastructure.

As there is no globally accepted definition for wearables, the following definitions are proposed:

This article focuses on an emerging opportunity for the intelligent health care product industry by leveraging the interoperability possibilities offered by the revised Directive on Radio Equipment (RED) through its inclusion of both generic radio equipment and wearable devices. In addition, the article includes a technical view on how wireless technologies may be designed into innovative products to provide connectivity to enable remote patient monitoring or virtual assessments. Technical issues include connectivity choices, localization requirements, and data exchange.

In-Body wearable strain Sensor ideally describes the unobtrusive integration of wearable electrical sensors subsection into garments, apparel accessories, or wearable devices. The benefits include stylish design with comfort and flexibility. In addition, this type of technology can integrate information from multiple sensor systems such as EEG, EOG, ECG, etc., potentially enabling a comprehensive assessment of performance metrics.

The next generation of wearable sensor technologies will be worn inside the body for maximum security and minimal discomfort. These devices could provide continuous monitoring without compromising patient mobility or arousing suspicion that they are being monitored - unlike today's wristwatch-like capacitive wearable sensors that have only just begun to hit the market. However, these intelligent health care products carry a high degree of risk for security breaches. A challenge is to ensure that patients are confident that medical data collected by these devices will remain confidential and private.

Hence, the focus of this article is on privacy and health care information protection (HCIP) for in-body sensors. The main obstacles with the current state of wearable technology are a lack of protocols, the absence of clear policies, and inadequate technologies to secure data records from unauthorized access. However, the impact of these privacy issues has been relatively small because most devices have been worn externally, or their use has been confined to controlled environments such as laboratories.

Today's wearable sensor market is primarily dominated by wristband form factors used for consumer sports/fitness tracking, activity monitoring, and smartwatch functions. This new generation of products targets consumers interested in personal wellness and fashion. However, the technology is also becoming more advanced in applications such as remote patient monitoring. As a result, it has enormous potential to facilitate care provider access to personalized information about patients' physical status, medication compliance, etc., rather than simply tracking user activity or sleep patterns.

Already familiar with wearable devices for social networking and virtual reality applications, today's students are familiarizing themselves with new technologies faster. Wearable health care products may well appeal to them since they can be used anywhere on or even inside the body—and allowing continuous streaming of data gives users a sense of empowerment over their health.

Wearable technology that provides healthcare with timely insights into an individual's health status can enhance the quality of care and reduce healthcare costs. A wearable device is an electronic device that can be worn on the body as a garment or part of it. Wearable devices are defined by integrating wearable chemical sensors, wearable electronics, and other technology and may be used for medical purposes or general wellness.

Bluetooth: The wireless transfer of data over short distances (using radio signals) from fixed and mobile devices, such as headsets, PCs, car audio systems, gaming consoles; it is also applied in industrial and scientific applications such as telemetry. Bluetooth enables multiple users to share information easily without a physical connection between devices or equipment at speeds up to 25Mbit/s within about 10 meters. It is a standard technology used in mobile phones and computers, with increasing applications for other areas such as healthcare and fitness.

Authorized parties can monitor Consumer-level activity trackers (i.e., wearables) via Bluetooth links to mobile devices such as smartphones. This raises serious security issues about patient-generated data that could be unintentionally disclosed or stolen by unauthorized third parties using mobile phone sniffing applications such as BlueNose.

On the other hand, Bluetooth-enabled sensors can also be compromised if not adequately protected with security features such as symmetric-key cryptography and authenticated transmissions between communicating parties – with potential consequences for patients' privacy and well-being.

A significant benefit of fitness trackers is their ability to monitor individuals' activities over time and provide health care professionals with accurate data about their patients' progress. For example, monitoring blood pressure, pulse rate, body temperature, respiratory rate, sleep patterns, caloric intake, etc., can be captured by wearable mechanical sensors without taking readings during patient visits routinely.

The ability of wearables to monitor vital signs even while the patient is at home or engaged in daily activities provides an additional level of convenience for both users and providers since measurements are not always taken indoors or under direct observation. This could significantly reduce unnecessary emergency room calls for conditions managed effectively by remote monitoring tools.

Opportunities and future perspectives

Wearable patient monitors are currently used in both clinical and home settings, but future growth areas will be in the following areas:

- Remote monitoring (patient at home)

- Patient adherence to the treatment regimen

- Interoperability among different technologies

Many factors can affect the usage of wearable health care technology. These include its value proposition for patients who may not want to invest in these devices because they find them costly or unnecessary. The higher cost of high-end wearables is also a deterrent for some people. Furthermore, current models do not always provide clear benefits for consumers making it difficult to justify what could amount to a significant investment in their use. Another factor that holds back market viability is the lack of standardization across wearable demonstrations capacitive pressure sensors and devices. In other words, wearables from different companies do not communicate and lack compatibility.

To meet the current market demand for these devices, several actors are beginning to tap into the existing introduction wearable sensing technology to deliver cost-effective solutions that can be leveraged by healthcare providers operating on low budgets. This will ultimately lead to an increase in the adoption of wearable health care technologies among providers at all levels—especially since patients' demands for better outcomes prompt them to seek out more affordable options.

Measurement of Physiological Metrics from Wearable Sensors for COVID-19 Monitoring (

The COVid-19 monitor is a wearable noninvasive device for continuous monitoring of blood pressure (BP), pulse rate (PR), body temperature (BT), respiratory rate (RR), sleep patterns, ECG waves, SpO2, and blood oxygen saturation levels. The COVID-19 consists of three parts: 1) sensor package; 2) Bluetooth connection back to smartphone/tablet computer; 3) display screen.            

The essential part of the device is the sensor package which includes four sensors: a) two or more Arrhythmia sensors to detect atrial fibrillation and premature ventricular contractions; b) one ECG sensor which measures the heartbeat via electrodes attached to the torso; c) one SpO2 sensor that will measure the oxygen saturation level in blood. The medical-grade, Bluetooth low energy (BLE) – enabled sensor package is integrated into a patient shirt, similar to what is worn during sleep studies. With this single-piece shirt design, each of these four measurements can be made continuously with no additional equipment.

Figure 1: COVID-19 Sensor Package

To calibrate patients' data from different locations/environments/positions, we use inertial sensors to collect orientation and acceleration data for each wearable sensor. The accelerometer included in the Android smartphone/tablet computer will achieve this calibration method.

Figure 2: COVID-19 Detailed Device Configuration

Figure 3: Final product (COVID-19)

Figure 4: COVID-19 Shirt - Front View

Figure 5: COVID – 19 Shirt – Back vie

Figure 6: COVID – 19 Detailed Chipset Design; we would like to thank TI (Texas Instruments) for sharing this figure.

Figure 7: Block Diagram of the Platform Architecture

Figure 8: Location of Wearables in the human body.

( Figure 8: Area of attachment for wearable devices.)

1) Blood Pressure Monitor (using 3-axis accelerometer and BLE): The customer is interested in having a health care monitoring device that consists of an armband that will measure the systolic, diastolic pressures as well as heart rate by using Bluetooth Low Energy to communicate with a smartphone/tablet computer application. We have used a 3-axis linear accelerometer and a BLE sensor to collect blood pressure and pulse rate data to achieve this goal. This prototype reads results on our tablet screen after the sensor has taken each reading on the armband via a B communication link.

2) Body Temperature Monitor (using a 3-axis accelerometer and BLE): The customer is interested in having a health care monitoring device that consists of an armband that will measure the core body temperature along with pulse rate by using Bluetooth Low Energy to communicate with a smartphone/tablet computer application. We have used a 3-axis linear accelerometer and a BLE sensor to collect blood pressure and pulse rate data to achieve this goal. This prototype reads results on our tablet screen after the sensor has taken each reading on the armband via a B communication link.

3) Blood Oxygen Monitor (using an optical sensor and BLE): The customer is interested in having a health care monitoring device that consists of an armband that will measure the blood oxygen saturation levels by using Bluetooth Low Energy to communicate with a smartphone/tablet computer application. We have used an optical sensor and a BLE sensor to collect data on blood pressure and pulse rate to achieve this goal. This prototype reads results on our tablet screen after the sensor has taken each reading on the armband via a B communication link.

4) COVID-19 Multisensor Platform (using multiple sensors): The customer is interested in having a health monitoring device that consists of several wearable sensors which will measure SpO2, ECG, heart rate variability, respiration rate, body temperature, and accelerometer data all at once by using Bluetooth Low Energy to communicate with a smartphone/tablet computer application. We have used multiple sensors to collect blood pressure and pulse rate data to achieve this goal. This prototype reads results on our tablet screen after the sensor has taken each reading on the armband via a B communication link.

Figure 9: COVID-19 Block Diagram

5) COVID-19 Multisensor Platform (using multiple sensors): The customer is interested in having a health monitoring device that consists of several wearable sensors which will measure SpO2, ECG, heart rate variability, respiration rate, body temperature, accelerometer data all at once by using Bluetooth Low Energy to communicate with a smartphone/tablet computer application. We have used multiple sensors to collect blood pressure and pulse rate data to achieve this goal. This prototype reads results on our tablet screen after the sensor has taken each reading on the armband via a B communication link.

6) COVID-19 Multisensor Platform (using multiple sensors): The customer is interested in having a health monitoring device that consists of several wearable sensors which will measure SpO2, ECG, heart rate variability, respiration rate, body temperature, accelerometer data all at once by using Bluetooth Low Energy to communicate with a smartphone/tablet computer application. We have used multiple sensors to collect blood pressure and pulse rate data to achieve this goal. This prototype reads results on our tablet screen after the sensor has taken each reading on the armband via a BLUETOOTH Low Energy communication link.

7) COVID-19 Multisensor Platform (using multiple sensors): The customer is interested in having a health monitoring device that consists of several wearable sensors which will measure SpO2, ECG, heart rate variability, respiration rate, body temperature, accelerometer data all at once by using Bluetooth Low Energy to communicate with a smartphone/tablet computer application. We have used multiple sensors to collect blood pressure and pulse rate data to achieve this goal. This prototype reads results on our tablet screen after the sensor has taken each reading on the armband via a B communication link.

8) COVID-19 Multisensor Platform (using multiple sensors): The customer is interested in having a health monitoring device that consists of several wearable sensors which will measure SpO2, ECG, heart rate variability, respiration rate, body temperature, accelerometer data all at once by using Bluetooth Low Energy to communicate with a smartphone/tablet computer application. We have used multiple sensors to collect blood pressure and pulse rate data to achieve this goal. This prototype reads results on our tablet screen after the sensor has taken each reading on the armband via a B communication link.

Future perspectives and recommendations: Adopting Wearable Sensor Technology in the medical field

The customer is interested in having a health monitoring device that consists of several wearable sensors which will measure SpO2, ECG, heart rate variability, respiration rate, body temperature, accelerometer data all at once by using Bluetooth Low Energy to communicate with a smartphone/tablet computer application. We used multiple sensors to collect individual blood pressure and pulse rate data to achieve this goal. This prototype reads results on our tablet screen after the sensor has taken each reading on the armband via a B communication link. Future works would focus on taking measurements more frequently than every minute and making the device suitable for the elderly. In addition, our measurements have been taken on ordinary healthy people. Therefore, future works would include testing this device on a population with a pre-existing medical condition.

Conclusions:

Medical monitoring is a significant field where Wearable Sensors could make a difference. They can be used in diagnostics while at the same time being noninvasive and comfortable for patients. In addition, wearable sensors have many other applications in the medical world, such as teleconsultation or monitoring devices that can alert doctors or caregivers about changes in patients' vital signs from remote locations. Numerous possibilities could harness this technology into a valuable device for people with health conditions who need to monitor themselves regularly. Our research has shown that many companies have already started developing their wearable sensor systems. We believe there will soon be available commercial products that will help improve our quality of life by helping us monitor our health more closely.

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